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Was beheadet is the predicate.
King ... .. is limited by “ Charles," an adjective eio-

ment of the first class, used to identify the
“king." "King Charles” is the complex

subject. Charles ..... is a proper noun, of the third person, sin.

gular number, nominative case, and is used to identify “ king;” according to Rule VI., “A noun or pronoun," &c. (See 105, a.)


Analyze the following sentences, parsing the nouns in apposition:

The patriarch Abraham was accounted faithful. Paul the apostle was a martyr. The emperor Nero was a cruel tyrant. Milton the poet was blind. The disciple John was beloved. The martyr Stephen was stoned. The great navigator Columbus was maltreated. Henry the scholar was crowned king.

Write twelve sentences limiting the subject by a noun in apposition.

Note. Let the pupil review the declension of nouns and personal pronouns, (Lesson III., in the Appendix.)

106. The subject may be limited by a noun or pronoun which represents it as an object of possession; as, Henry's book fell.”

(a.) This relation does not always denote possession. It may dorote the relation of persons; as, “ William's cousin;” rolation of the doer to the thing done; as, “ Solomon's Temple ;” or the relation of a whole to its parts ; as, “ a horse's head ;** • the dog's foot."

(6.) The possessive pronouns mine, thine, his, hers, ours, yours, ood theirs, are used as nouns, and hence nay be employed as

or the

predicates, when we wish to affirm (not assume) possession, as, * The book is mine;" The pen is yours.

107. A noun or pronoun thus used to limit the subject is parsed by the following rule:

Rule VII. A noun or pronoun used to lnnit another noun by denoting possession, must be in the possessive case; as, “ Stephen's courage failed.


His hand trembles.
It is a simple sentence, because it contains but one

Hand ... is the subject. (Why?)
Trembles is the predicate. (Why?)
His hand is the complex subject. (Why?)
Hand .. is limited by “his," an adjective element of tho

first class, denoting whose hand. His .... is a personal pronoun, third person, singular

number, possessive case, and is the modifier of "hand;” according to Rule VII.


Analyze the following sentences, parsing the modi fier of the subject :

The rook's nest was destroyed. The bird's beak was broken.

Our lesson is easy. My task is completed. Wiliam's farm is productive. Rufus's garden is watered

Write twelve sentences limiting the subject by a noun or pronoun in the possessive case.

108. The adjec vive element, by an ellipsis of the loun to which it belongs, often becomes the suba ject of the proposition; as, “ The good may err;' This is the book;" Many will be disappointed.'

(a.) In such cases, the adjective is said to be used as a noun. (33, a.) Thus, in the first example above, “good " is an adjec. tive used as a noun, third person, plural number, &c., and is the vobject of "

Let the pupil write examples of this kint

may err

EXERCISE 21. Analyze and parse the following miscellaneous eramples :

Three birds few. The man awoke. Good food was provided. Every soldier escaped. All men are mortal. Twenty days have passed. Your lesson is easy. Wis. dom's ways are pleasant. The king's council might have been able. John the Baptist was beheaded. The planet Venus has risen. Sirius, the dog-star, is visible. Boston, the capital, is populous. The goddess Discord was offended. Beautiful plants were sold. Old iron is wanted Becket, the archbishop, was considered a martyr. The east wind is disagreeable. A winter scene

was repre sented. A sun-burnt urchin came in. The merry dance commenced.

Write twenty sentences illustrating the four kinds of modifiers. (96, a, b, c, d.)




109. By certain inflections (Section IV.) the predicate can be mad to indicate properties not essential to it as predicate. These are called modifications of the predicate, because they restrict its application to a certain time or in a certain manner.

110. When it is necessary to restrict the application of the predicate by referring to properties which cannot be indicated by inflections, other words (as with tne subject) must be added.

111. All such words are called modifiers of the predicate, (92.)

112. The predicate, considered apart from the words that limit it, is called the grammatical predicate, or simply the predicate.

113. When taken in connection with the words which limit it, it is called the complex or logical predicate.

114. When the predicate is a noun, (36, 60,) it may be limited, like the subject, by an adjective element, (see Section V.;) as, “Francis is an industrious boy."

Note. Let the pupil write examples modifying the predicate nominative by either of the four species of modifiers mentioned in the last section. This construction will need no further illi


115. When the predicate is an adjective, it may be limited by an adverbial element; as, 'He was awake early.Note. This element will be treated of in the next section

116 When the predicate is a verb, it may be limited either oy an adverbial or

adverbial or an objective ele. ment, or both; as, “The boy studied his lesson carefully."


117. The objective element is that which is ilsed to complete the meaning of a transitive verb. see Appendix ;) as, “He opened (what ?) a book, - a knife, - the door, -- his hand,

the door, -- his hand, - his eyes," &c. 118. The objective element becomes the subject when the transitive verb assumes the passive form ; as, “Henry struck William ;" 6 William was struck by Henry.”

(a.) The objective element answers the question Whom? or What? as,

“He loves (whom?) George;" “They broke (what?) the ice.”

(b.) The noun or pronoun used as the object has the same modifications (Sec. III.) of number, gender, and person, as the subject.

119. The following rule should be applied in parsing the object :

RULE VIII. A noun or pronoun used as the object of a transitive verb or its participles, must be in the objective case; as, “We paid him."

Note. Review the declension of nouns and personal pronouns, Appendix, Lesson 111.


Casar defeated Pompey. It is a simple sentence, because it contains but one

proposition. Chesar

is the subject. Defeated .

is the predicate. Defeated .. .. is limited by" Pompey," an objective ela

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