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10.) Without affecting any of its propcriics; as, “iwo men;" these men;

(6.) By designating some property; as, "good iner;"

(c.) By identifying it; as, “Paul the apostle ; Peter the hermit;"

(d.) By representing it as an object possessed ; As, David's harp."

97. The first two limitations are effected by adjective words; the second two, by nouns or pro



98. All adjective words (articles, adjectives, and participles) are divided into two classes, - limiting and qualifying

99. Limiting adjectives are used to restrict the application of the noun, without expressing any of its properties; as, "ten commandments;" "each .esson."

100. Qualifying adjectives are used to restrict the application of the noun to a class of objects which possess a certain property in common; as, “good men; idle boys; " " tall trees.”

(a.) An unlimited noun is taken in the widest extent of its application; as, “ Horses run. Here “horses" applies to the whole race, and embraces every possible property of the horse. A noun is said to be limited in the extent of its application when the number of individuals included in it is diminished. Thus “ horses" embraces a greater number of inaividuals than “sixty

or " white horses." “ Sixty" excludes all above that number, but may include those of any description whatever • whereas " white” excludes all of any other color, and embracni those only whic's possess that property in common.

horses "

101. Among . limiting adjectives are reckoned the article, pronominal adjectives, numerals, and those which express some circumstance of place, time, cause, or manner.

NOTE. See Appendix, Lesson Vn.


Apply limiting adjectives to the subjects of the following sentences :

Horse neighs. Arts are improved. Citizens complain. Business is completed. Soldier stood. Dog ran. Cloud is black. Hen is dead. Duck swam. Storm did abate. Wind blew. Rain fell. Men were captured. Walk was taken. Book is useful. Houses are built.

Ride is pleasant.

MODEL. That horse neighs. Write twelve entire sentences, applying limiting ad jectives to the subjects.

102. Among qualifying adjectives are reckoned, 1st, all those adjectives which express any property of the noun; and 2d, the several participles.

(a.) A qualifying adjective or participle is an attribute, (16.) It is said to be used as a modifier when it is assumed of a noun, as a predicato when it is affirmed of it.

(b.) A limiting adjective does not properly express any attri bute of the noun, and consequently is seldom compared or used mo a predicate.

Note. Study Lesson VII., in the Appendir, and tnen pero form the following exercise :


Apply qualifying adjectives to the subjects of the following propositions :

Maxim is given. Scriptures teach. Men desire. Roproof hardens. Habits should be avoided. Counsels were given. Character shines. Cottage stood.

Write predicates to the following subjects, limiting each subject by some qualifying adjective or parti riple :

Lady, paper, lord, cousin, light, darkness, ambassador, amy, commissioner, tiger, traitor, tutor, pupil, window, cellar, chamber, chancellor, monk, friar, countess.

MODEL. The good lady assisted. Write subjects to the following predicates, and let each be limited by a limiting and a qualifying adjective.

Was prepared ; was made; was served up; had scattered; is desirable; were tamed; is delightful; had arrived ; can jump; might have slept; did eat; could fight; was avoided ; could have been stopped ; may be upset; was emptied ; sailed; was prostrated.

MODEL. That sumptuous feast was prepared. 103. Adjectives used as modifiers should be parsed by the following rule. (See Rule III.)

Rule V. An adjective or participle used as a modifier, belongs to the noun or pronoun which it limits.


Tall oaks bend. It is a simple sentence, because it contains but ono

proposition, (27.) Oaks .... is ine subject, because it is that of which

the action “ bend” is affirmed.

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is the predicate, because it is the action

affirmed of a oaks." Oaks (the subject) is limited by “tall,” an adjective ele

ment of he first class, denoting the

kind (tall) of oak. Tal oaks

is the complex subject. Tall

is a qualifying adjective, of the positive degree, (compared, tall, taller, tallest,) and is used as a modifier of the subject; according to Rule V., “ An ad. jective or participle used as a modifier, belongs to the noun or pronoun which it limits.”


This truth is clear.
NOTE. Analyze as in the previous example.

is a limiting adjective, (not compared,)
and is a modifier of the subject ; ac-

cording to Rule V. NOTE. Clear is also an adjective, but it is used as the predicate of the proposition, (not a modifier,) and is parsed by Rule III.

Bengal tigers are ferocious. Bengal . is a limiting adjective, denoting place,

(not comparea,) and is used as a modifier of the subject; according to Rule V.


Analyze the following sentences, and parse the adjectives :

Subsequent voyages were made. The third expedition was unfortunate. Severe laws were passed. These iliscriptions were co sied. Modern history should be soldied

An erroneous opinion prevailed. A republican govern. ment was established. Thirty men were captured.


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104. The subject may be limited by a noun or pronoun used to explain it by designating its office, rank, character, or utherwise identifying it; as, “ Peter the hermit preached the first crusade."

(a.) The limiting noun or pronoun must represent the same person or thing as the limited noun.

(b.) The limiting noun denotes some property office, rank, &c.) of the subject, and is here used as an assumed property, corresponding to the predicate-nominative, just as the adjective or psrticiple, denoting an assumed property, corresponds to the predicate-adjective or participle.

105. A noun or pronoun thus used is said to be in apposition with the noun which it limits, and 19 to be parsed by the following rule: – RULE VI.

A noun or pronoun used to identify another noun or pronoun, is put by apposition in the same case; as, “ His brother George was absent."

(a.) When the limiting noun denotes a person, it generally agrees with the limited, in number, gender, and case. (60, 1.)


King Charles was beheaded. It is a simple sentence, because it contains but one

proposition. King

is the g: bject.*

* The definitions may se omitted wher the pupil becomes familiar with them.

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