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86. Since the subjunctive is nothing more than the indicative or potential, under the intluence of some particle denoting condition, (if, though, unless, &c.,) it has the same tenses as the inode from which it is derived

87. The imperative has but one tense, with three forms.


Write, (common form.)
Pres. Tense. Be thou writing, (progressive form.)

Do thou write, (emphatic form.) 88. The infinitive has two tenses, sach having wo forms


Pres. Tense.

Division. Tenses.

( To write, (common form.)

To be writing, (progressive form.) – Pres.

To have written, (common form.) Pres. Perf.

To have been writing, (progres

sive form.) 89. The participle has three forms.


Present.... Writing.
Past. Written.

Perfect. ... Having written. (e.) Analogy would seem to require the following arrange bent of the participles .


Having written
1. Past.

Past Tense. Written

{ past pers.

NOTE T'he pupil should now study the several lessons on the verb found in the Appendix. He should then care ally pe! Corm the following exercises


Analyze the sentences according to the models, Sec. II.

The boy is diligen... In ....

is an irregular intransitive verb, (princi. pal parts, be, was, been,) in the indicative mode, present tense,

third person, singular number, and agrees with its subject, “ boy ;” according to Rule IV.,

“ The verb must agree,” &c.

James should have come. Should have come is an irregular intransitive verb, in the

potential mode, past perfect tense, third person, singular number, and agrees with its subject, “ James ;” according to Rule IV.


Depart. is a regular intransitive verb, in the imperative mode, present tense, second person, singular number, and agrees with thou understood ; * according to Rule IV

Children should obey their parents. Should obey .... is a regular transitive verb, (prir cipa

parts, obey, obeyed, obeyed,) active voice,

* When the subject, or any other part of a y oposition, is omitted, it is said to be understood.

potential mode, past tense,* third person, plural number, and agrees with its sub

ject,“ children ;” according to Rule IV Note. The relation of the transitive ve b to its object will be rally explained in a subsequent section.

He is deceived. Is deceived ..... is a regular passive verb, (transitive

verb, passive voice) (principal parts, deceive, deceived, deceived,) in the indicative mode, present tense, third person, singular number, and agrees with its

subject," he;" according to Rule IV. Noth. The uses of the subjunctive, infinitive, and the partici. ples, will be explained hereafter.


Write subjects to the following verbs : Teach, instruct, learn, speak, say, utter, weep, lament rejoice, bloom, laugh, move, bring, obey, try, bite, dance fight, praise, censure, adorn, wound, punish, devour, croak, whistle, amuse, disturb, be committed.

Let the first twelve be in the indicative mode, two in each tense.

MODEL. Pres. {

John teaches.

James instructs. Let the next twelve be in the potential mode, three in each tense. (See model above.) Write the remainder in the imperative mode. Give the infinitive and participles to ten of the above verbs.

Past Tense. { We learned

* More properly, “ should obev" denotes a unive sal obligo on, without reference to time.

[blocks in formation]

Analyze and parse the following sentences apply. ing the four rules which are used in the construction of the subject and predicate. (See the preceding nodels for analyzing and parsing.)

John was a disciple. Jesus was betrayed. David is called the psalmist. You can learn. He will be writing, He had been defeated. Stop. Be active. Become a sol. dier. They should be industrious. He might have been captured. George may have returned. Do be still Flenry will have been planting. I spoke. Do stay.

Note. If the preceding exercises should not be sufficient to make the pupil perfectly familiar with the properties and con. struction of the subject and predicate, they should be multiplied, at the discretion of the teacher. It is all important that these two elements of the sentence be perfectly understood before proceeding farther.




90. It has been seen, (Sec. III.) that the subject is susceptible of certain inflections, (41,) which indicate its number, person, and gender. These changes are properly called modifications of the subject, since they restrict its application to some per

or thing affected by one or more of these properties.


91. It is often necessary to restrict the applica tion of the subject, by referring to other properties which cannot be indicated by inflection. The method pursued in all languages is the same, namely, to add to the subject such word or words as shall designate the property required ; as, “ Birds fly;” “Black birds fly;Canary birds fly;" Large birds fly.

(a.) Some nouns are sufficiently definite without additional words; such as proper nouns, William, Philadelphia ; many of the abstract nouns, goodness, virtue, vice; many nouns denoting substance,

as, grass, wood. (6.) Pronouns being used to denote the relation of the subject lò the speaker, or referring to nouns which have before been introduced and sufficiently limited, seldom receive additional words.

92. All such additional words are called modifiers, because they modify, limit, or restrict, the application of the subject.

93. The modifiers of the subject, or of the noun in any of its relations, form a new element of the sentence, called the adjective element.

94. The subject considered apart from the ad jective element, is called the grammatical subject, or simply the subject.

95. The subject taken with the words which limit it, is called the complex or logical subject. (a.) The adjective element generally answers the questions What kind ? How many

Whose? 96. All modifiers of the subject, or of the noun in any of its relations, are used to restrict its applecation. This may be done,


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