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I'ra's predicates to the following subjects : Indicative Mode. Besiegers, Swedes, French, Bonaparte, procession, ladies, enemy, skill, emperor, he, it, gov. ernment, conventions, war.

MODEL The besiegers were repulsed. Potential Mode. Fleet, column, congress, boys, sugar, oys, books, slates, ink, virtue, temperance, education, duty, mischief. MODEL. The fleet may be overtaken. A column must

be erected.

Convert the following infinitives into the imperative mode :

To write ; to study; to play ; to sing; to reid ; to be. gin; to delay; to be active; to be true; to labor; to travel; to be acquitted ; to indicate; to be happy ; to leave; to wash; to strike; to love.

MODEL. Write, or Write thou. NOTE. The subject comes after the verb in the imperative mode, and is usually omitted.

Change the modes in your written examples, - the indicative to the potential, the potential to the indicarive, and so on.

MODEL. The besiegers were repulsed. The besiegers might be repulsed. Be ye repulsed. To be repulsed.

Tense of the Verb.

78. Tense denotes the time of an action or event. It may be either past, present, or future

(a.) Since time, considered absolutely, is an embroken sucos con ut instants, we can speak of an event as past, present,


forme, only in relation to some point to which all others by way refer. The point assumed for this purpose is the time when the action or event is mentioned, that is, spoken or written, and is called the time of the spuaker ; as, “ Columbus sailed; (1846 being the time of the speaker, and 2492 being the time of the opent.)

(b.) There are, therefore, two points of time to be considered in the simplest form of the verb, — the time of the speaker, ard the time of the event. The time of the event may be simultane. ous with that of the speaker; as, " Edward writes.” It is then called the present. The time of the event may be antecedent to that of the speaker; as, “ Edward wrote.” It is then called the

The time of the event may be subsequent to the time of the speaker; as, “ Edward will write.” It is then called the future.

79. When a tense is simply past, present, or future, without any other limitation, it is called an absolute tense ; as, “I sing,” “I sang,” “I shall sing."

(a.) Besides relating to the time of the speaker, an event may oe referred to another time specified in the sentence; as, “ Edward was writing at noon.Here the act of writing is antecedent to the time of the speaker, but simultaneous with a specified time, li at noon."

(h.) As in the first relation, so in this, the time of an event may be simutaneous with, antecedent to, or subsequent to, the specified time.

(c.) This double relation of the tenses will be best exhibited to the eye by the following table :

Point specified. 2d Rol

before noon, (ante.) Edward was writing, . (ante.) at noon, · · (simul.)

after noon, (subse; Time of

before noon, (ante.) the Edward is writing, (su nul.) at noon, . . (simul.) Speaker.

after noon, (subse.)

before noon, (ante.) Edward will be writing, (sul s.) at noon, . . (simul.)

after noon, (subse.) NOTE. The event is referred to the points mentioned on the right and left of it; thus, “ w Ls wri'ng" is antecedent to the

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Point assumed


Ist Rel

point assumed, (the time of the speaker,) but may be either antecedent to, simultaneous wit), or subsequent to, the point speci. fied, (before, at, after noon.)

SO. When a tense refer to a time specified in the sentence, it is called a relative tense ; as, “ Ed. ward had written before night;" “ Edward will have written before noon.'

(a) Relative tenses require an additional element of the sentence, and therefore cannot be fully discussed in this connection.

(6.) Some tenses are always relative; as, “ The ship had sailed before the stage arrived." Others may be either absolute or relative; as, “ He wrote;"“He wrote in the morning."

81. Each general division of time has two tenses, -one absolute, and one relative; as, “I love," "I have loved ;”“I loved," "I had loved;" “I shall love," "I shall have loved.”

(a.) Each absolute terse may be regarded as the present of its division; as,

“ I study,” (pres. of the pres. ;) “ 1 studied,” (pres. of the past ;) “ 1 shall study" (pres. of the future.) In the same manner, each relative tense may be regarded as the perfect of its present; as, “I have studied," (perf. of “I study;”) “ I had studied,” (perf. of “I studied;”) “ I shall have studied,” (perf. of “ I shall study.")

(6.) Each perfect tense denotes the completion of an act in the time to which it refers, that is, its present.

82. There are, therefore, six tenses, — three absolute, (the present, the past, and the future,) and three relative, (the present perfect, the past perfect, and the future perfect.) They may be thus exhibited:

The Present Tense, which denotes present time. 1. Pres. The Present Perfect Tense, which denotes a

past time completed in the present.

The l'ast Tense, which denotes past time. !!! Pasi.

The l'ast Perfect Tense, which denotes past

timo completed in the past.

The Future l'ense, which denotes future time. Ill. Fut.

The Future Perfect Tense, which denotes a fu

ture time completed in the uture. (a.) The future perfea relates, 1st, to an her future time, and 2d, through that, to the time of the speaker. So the past perfect relates 1st, o another past time, and 2d, througb tnut, to the time of the speaker. But the present perfect relates to t'ie present tin.e, and, simultaneous with it, to the time of the speaker. Hence, the present perfect has but one point of reference, since the present time and the time of the speaker are the same. On this account, the present perfect lose

one im. portant feature of a relative tense, namely, two different points of reference. Its relation to the present is, however, precisely like that of the past perfect to the past, or the future perfect to the future.

83. The absolute tenses (except the future) may have three forms ; - the common, which represents a customary act with indefinite time; the progressive, which represents an unfinished act with definite time; the emphatic, which represents an act repeated, or stated with emphasis ; it is also used in interrogative sentences. The relative tenses have 'wo forms, the common and the progressive.

84. The indicative mode has six tenses.


I write, (common form.)
L Pres. I am writing, (progressive form.)

I do write, (emphatic form.)

I wrote, (common.)
II. F'ast. I was writing, (progressive.)

I did write. (emphatic.

Ill. Fut.


I shall write, (common.)
I shall be writing, (progressive.)

EXAMPLES OF THE RELATIVE TENSES, | Pres. P. { 1 have written, (common.)

I have been writing. (progressive.)
(I had written, (common.
( I had been writing, (progressive.)
I shall have written, (common.)

I shall have been writing, (progressione (a.) The emphatic form 's confined to the indicative and in rative modes ; and the progressive and emphatic to the active soice. Note. Study Lesson XI., in the Appendix.

85. The potential mode has four tenses, each having two forms.


1. Pres.



may, can, or must write, (com Pree. Tense.

mon form.) I may, can, or must be writing,

(progressive form.)

I may, can, or must have written, Pres. Perf.

(common form.) I may, can, or must have been

writing, (progressive form.) I might, could, would, or should

write, (common form.) Past Tense.

I might, could, would, or should

be writing, (progressive form.) I might, could, would. or should

have written. (common form.) Past Perf

I night, could, would, or should

have been writing. (prog. form.)

I Past.

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