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adjective and verb, and is hence called a participle. Like the aq recave, it denotes some property of a noun. It may represent either an assumed or predicated property; as, “ Horses running;' “ Horses are running.” It relates to the noun in the same man ner as the adjective, (64.) But, on the other hand, unlike the adjective, it expresses action; it may be blended with the copula, and form the predicate, ( 24 ;) it may, like the verb, represent the different conditions of the action, and may receive the same limi. tations by additional words as the verb does.

(6.) The copula and participle, when distinct, constitute a peculiar form of the verb, called the progressive form.

66. Verbs are divided into regular and irregular, ransitive and intransitive. The first distinction has reference to their form; the second, to their use.

Note. For further particulars respecting the classes of verbs, see Appendix, Lesson VIII

67. The accidents of the verb are number, person, mode, and tense. They show a relation both to the subject and the speaker.

Number and Person of the verb.

68. The number and person of the verb are properties which show its agreement with the subject. Like the subject, the verb has two numbers and three persons.

(a.) Number and person are not so distinctly marked in English as in most other languages.

(6.) Boch number and person, so far as shown at all by the verb itself, are indicated by a w.ange of form.


First Person,

First Person, Second Person, Thou art ; Second Person, You are; Third Person, He is.

Third Person, They are

I ani ;

We are ;

69. The following is the rule for the construc. tion o, the verb:

Rule IV. The verb must agree with its subject in number and person.

(a.) This rule applies to the copula when distinct from the attribute, or to the verb when both are united ; as, “ Thou art sleeping; " " Thou sleepest.

Note. Observe that the form art indicates the number and person, precisely in the same way as does the termination est.

16.) To this rule there properly is no exception. There is, however, an apparent exception in the case of collective nouns, which, in the singular number, may take a verb in the plural. If, in using such a noun, reference is had to the individuals form. ing the collection, the verb should always be plural; otherwise it should be singular.

Note. Study Lesson IX., in the Appendix.


Trees grow

Analyze the following sentences, giving the number and person of each verb:

I write. He speaks. We say. They are riding. She is painting. You intimate. Thou thinkest. Gibbon nar. rated. Francis drives. Plants thrive. Frends advise. Teachers direct. It rains. They run. Stars shine.

Write each of these sentences, separating the copula from the attribute :

MODEL. I am writing. Write subjects to the following verbs, taking can *o use the right number and person :

Sleeps, consent, chatters, walkest, are studying, command, preach, whistle, delays, abides, live, beseech, bo tray, consignest, disfigure, is contriving, was finishing, art spinning, mayst stop, does de iberate, wilt stay. MODEL.

Susan sleeps. We consent. Correct the following sentences : James think I readest. We speaks. You writes. Henry recitest. She complain. They viewedst. Thou is learning. We art ready.

Ho leat George art weeping. Model. James thinks. James think is incorrect, be

cause think does not agree with James in number, according to Rule IV.

Some says.

Mode of the Vcrb.

70. Mode shows the manner in which the attribute is asserted of the subject.

(a.) Mode relates to the manner of the assertion, not to that of the thing asserted, and therefore affects the copula rather than the attribute. Hence, when a verb contains the copula and attribute united, mode should be regarded as affecting the assertion, and noi che action. The manner of the action is deter mined by additional words, as will be shown in a subsequen: section.

(6.) Assert, in this connection, is used in opposition to assume, see 16, a.) It applies to all cases in which an attribute is connected with a subject by the copula, w latever may be the particular mode of connection.

71. An attribute may be connected with the subject so as to show that it actually exists as a property of the subject; as, “ James is rich.”

(a.) When a property does not actually exist in the subject, its absence is declared in a similar manner; as, “ James is not rich.'

(6.) A property may exist in the subject, and the speaker may oe ignorant of it. He can then inquire after its existence as nemething actual ; as. “ 18 Jarnes rich ?"

Ncte Actuality is the idea which is common to these whice


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72. An attribute may be connected with the subject, so as to show not that it really exists in it, but that such an existence is possible, probable, necessary, or obligatory; as, “James may be rich, can be rich, - must be rich."

(a.) Here again, the possibility or necessity may be denied or inquired for; as, “ James cannot, must not, may not be rich ;' " Can, may, oi must James be rich ?

Note. The idea of possibility, liberty, power, necessity, or ob. ligation, is the peculiarity of these forms of the verb.

73. An attribute may be connected with the subject so as to show, not actuality or possibility, simply, but a mere conception of something doubtful or conditional; as, “should virtue become vice;" “if it rains ; " " were he wrong." Note. Conditionality is the peculiarity of this form.

74. An attribute may be connected with the subject so as to show that its existence as a property of the subject is commanded, exhorted, or entreated ; as, “Be rich ;” “Be (thou] kind ;” "Go; " " Sit." Note. This form of the verb represents our desires.

75. An attribute may be stated abstractly, hav. ing no connection with a subject; as, “to be rich ;" "to write;" “ being rich;" “ writing.

76. These various forms of the verb are classi. fied by grammarians under five divisions, valled nodes;

The indicative, which represents what is acThe potential, which represents what may, cam


or must be ;Th: subjunctive, which represents what is condi.

tional ; 'The imperative, which commands, exhorts, en.

treats ; The infinitive, which represents an attribute ab

stractly. 77. The infinitive and participle are forms of the verb, but not strictly modes. (See 70.) (a.) The infinitive may be regarded as a verbal поип,

aud the participles as verbal adjectives. (For the classes and forms of the participle, see Appendix.)

(6.) Mode is indicated chiefly by auxiliary verbs, (59, a.)

(c.) The subjunctive and infinitive modes are used only as subordinate parts of a sentence, and cannot, therefore, be dir cussed here

Note. Study Lesson X., in the Appendix.


Analyze the following propositions, giving the mode of each verb. Give also the number and person, according to Rule IV.

The scales were turned. Charles was abandoned. The count was seized. We can dance. You may study. He 18 silent. Arthur was murdered. Stop. Stand still. Be careful. Be attentive. James was anxious. Truth is mighty. Wisdom exalts. Clouds overhang. Thunde

The lightning is vivid. Be wise. Awake. He may go. Study. You must write. Be gone. Arnold vas a traitor. Esau was hated It may rain. The clock strikes. The wind may rise. The storm may abate.


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