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denote number, gender, person, and cas:. (Ice Section HI.) The following is the rule for the construction of tne predicate-nominative :
Rule II. A noun or pronoun used vrith the copula to form the predicate, must be in the nominative case.
(a.) When a noun or pronoun is thus used, it is callus the predicate-nominative, to dietinguish it from the subject-ncarnative. The predicate-nominative always denotes the same person or thing as the subject, and must agree with it in case. When the predicate-nominative denotes a person, it usually agrees with the subject in gender, number, and crise.
(6.) By a peculiar idiom of the English language, the nerter pronoun it, as subject, may represent a noun or pronoun as predicate of any number, person, or gender; as, “It is 1;” “ It is they;' “ It is James;" “ It is she."
(c.) This rule applies when such verbs are used as are men tioned in 35, (c.)
MODELS FOR PARSING THE PREDICATE-NOMINATIVE
Gold is a metal.
(See Model for Analysis, p. 17.) Metal is a common noun, of the third person, singular
number, neuter gender, nominative case, and with " is " forms the predicate of the proposition, “Gold is a metal ;” according to Rule II., •i A noun or pronoun used with the copula to form the predi cate, must be in the nominative case."
He is cailed a hero.
Hero is a common noun, of the third person, singular num
ber, masc. gender, nominative case, and, with " called.' forms the predicate of the proposition, llo
is called a hero ;” according to Rule II., “ A noun sr pro noun used with the copula to form the predicale, must be in the nominative case
Note. Ooserve that this proposition has 'wo auributes, called and hero, both of which, with is, constitute the predicate. (Sos 85, c.)
Analyze the following propositions, parsing the subjects and attributes :
Demosthenes was an orator. I am he. It is I. It is Abraham. Horses are animals. He was considered a genius. She is a poetess. Madison was elected presi. dent. We are pupils. He is deemed a workman. They have become teachers. Borneo is an island. Algebra is a science. Air is a Auid. Water is a liquid.
Water is a liquid. Oxygen is a gas. He appeared as * agent. He is regarded as a historian.
Write a subject and copula to each of the following nouns and pronouns taken as attributes :
You, soldier, treatise, I, she, king, trees, vegetables, Andrew, Benjamin, animals, virtue, book, they, we, serpent, fish, insect, reptile, flower, plant, mineral, bay, harbor, planet, comet.
MODEL. It is you. He was a soldier.
II. MODIFICATIONS OF THE PREDICATE-ADJEC
TIVE. 61. When the attribute of the predicate is an adjective, it may be varied to indicate,
* Sometimes as, denoting office, capacity, or situation, is used to connect a property (either predicated or assumed) with the word to which it belongs ; as, “ The moon as satellite attende;" " Ha van regarded as innocent.'
a.) That the subject possesses the quality denoted by the adjective in a higher or lower degree han some other person or thing with which it is compared, as, “Charity is greater than hope, ” • Charles is smaller than James;
(6) That the subject possesses the quality denoted by the adjective in the highest or lowest degree, when considered in reference to all other objects with which it is compared ; as, “The greatest of these (three) is charity.”
Note. Instead of being compared with another person or thing, the subject may be compared with itself, since it may, a: different times, or under different circumstances, possess a quality in different degrees; as, “ His health is better to day than it was yesterday."
62. The variation of the adjective to show different degrees of quality, is called comparison.
(a) Comparison is indicated, - 1st. By changing the form of the adjective; as, wise, wiser, wisest ; — 20. By changing the word; as, bad, worse, worst ; — 3d. By adding other words; as, industrivus, more industrious, most industrious.
(6.) As comparison always requires an additional element of the sentence to complete the sense, the subiect cannot be fully discussed in this connection.
Note. For the formatior of the comparat've degree, see Appendix, Lesson VII.
63. The degrees of comparison are, the positive, de cumparative, and the superlative.
(a) Comparison applies to the adjective, either as ? predicated as an assumed property, (16.)
(6.) When the adjective s used to form the predicate, it is ealied the predicate-adjectite to distinguish it from the Euljective when used as a modifier.
64. The predicate-adjective should be parsed by the following rule :
RULE III. An adjective used with the copula to form the predicate, belongs to the subject.
(a.) In other languages, the relation of the adjective to the subject is indicated by an agreement in number, gender and case.
MODELS FOR PARSING THE PREDICATE-ADJECTIVE.
He is benevolent.
(Analyze according to the models, Sect. II.) Benevolent is an adjective, of the positive degree, (com.
pared, benevolent, more benevolent, most benevolent,) and forms with " is " the predicate of the proposition, “ He is benevolent." It belongs to “he,” according to Rule III., “An adjective used with the copula to form the predicate, belongs to the subject."
Richard is older (than John.] * Older ... is an adjective, of the comparative degree,
(compared, old, older, oldest,) and forms with “ is” the predicate of the proposition, “ Rich. ard is older." It belongs to the subject,
according to Rule III. Achilles was the bravest (of the Greeks.] Bravest . . is an adjective, of the superlative degree,
(compared, brave, braver, bravcst.) and forms with.“ was” the predicate of the proposition, “ Achilles was," &c. It belongs to “ Achil. les,” according to Rule III.
• The words in the brackets should be omitte t in analyzing as fae pupil is not prepared to explain them, (62, b.)
EXERCISE 11. Analyze the following examples, and parse tha adjectives :
Washington was wise. The country is free. The fur. niture is old. The child is weak. The wind is cold. *The ice is thin. The water is deep. The soil is rich. The boards are rough. The general is brave. Edward is sick. Life is short. The streets are wide. Tho dog is faithful. George is industrious. The constable is active. Gold is precious. Diamonds are combustible. The sun is brilliant. The days are long.
Write predicate-adjectives to complete the following :
Jonas is. The moon is. The ocean is. Truth is. He 19. Washington was. Arnold was. Flowers are. Ice is. Roses are.
MODEL. Jonas is sick. W-ite a subject and copula to each of the following adje, tives used as predicates :
handsome, powerful, awful, warm, mild, gentle, able, sad, mournful, judicious, wise, discreet, unsuccessful, kind.
MODEL. The horses are handsome. Write ten sentences of your own, using a predicata adjective.
III.-- MODIFICATIONS OF THE
65. The verb (except “to be”) includes both the copula and attribute, whether separate, as, “ Flowers are blooming,” or combined, as, “ Flowers bloom.”
(a.) The verbal attribute, when separated from the copula, ia a kind of adjective. It partakes of the properties both of the