Billeder på siden
PDF
ePub
[blocks in formation]

The subjunctive mode is the same as the indicative ar potential, with if prefixed.

[blocks in formation]

Singular.

Plural. Common Form, Love, or Love thou, Love, or Love ye or you, Emphatic Form,

Do thou love, Do ye or you love, Progressive Form, Be thou loving, Be ye or you loving, Fasside Farm, Be thou loved,

Be ye or you loved.

[blocks in formation]

Loving, (common form,)
Present, Being loving, (progressive form,)

Being loved, or loved, (passive form.)
Past, Loved, (used only in combination.)

Having loved, (common form,)
Perfect,

Having been loving, (progressive form)

Having been loved, (passive form.) Notr. Some few intransitive verbs take the passive fcrrr. as, * I am come; “ The sun is risen ; " " He is fallor.”

[ocr errors]

LESSON XII.

ADVERBS.

An adverb is a word used to modify the meaning of a verb, adjective, participle, or other adverb.

Adverbs may be divided into four general classes ; adverbs of place, of time, of cause, of manner.

Adverbs of place answer the questions, Where? Whither ? Whence ? as, here, there, above, yonder, below, somewhere, back, upwards, downwards, &c.

Adverbs of time answer the questions, When? How long? How often? as, then, yesterday, always, ever, con. rinually, often, frequently, &c.

Adverbs of cause answer the questions, Why? Wherefore? as, why, wherefore, therefore, then.

Note. Causal relations are commonly expressed by phrases and clauses. (See 132, a.)

Adverbs of manner answer the question, How ? as, ele. gantly, faithfully, fairly, &c. They are generally derived from adjectives denoting quality.

Under this head may be classed those which answer the ques tion, How? in respect to quantity or quality; as, How much! How good? &c.; as, too, dery, greatly, chiefly, perfectly, mainly, wholly, totally, quite, exceedingly.

Modal adverbs belong to this class. (See 134, a.) The following are the principal modal adverbs : — yes, yea, dcrily, truly, surely, undoubtedly, doubtless, forsooth, certainly; no, nay, not, possibly, probably, perhaps, peraddenture, perchance.

All phrases or clauses which denote place, time, cause, or manner, are of the nature of adverbs.

COMPARISON OF ADVERBS.

Many adverbs, like adjectives, admit of comparison; as, soon, sooner soonest ; bravely more bravely, most brarely.

Norg. For interrogative and conjunctive adverbs, see Les soos XIV. and XV.

LESSON X111.

PREPOSITIONS.

Note. For e construction and use of the prepositions Ko Chapter II.

A préposition is a word used to show the relation between a noun or pronoun and some preceding word ; as, upon, on, with.

The following is a list of the principal prepositions in

use :

till,

on,

Aboard,
about,
above,
according to,
across,
after,
against,
along,
amid or
amidst,
among or
amongst,
around,
at,
athwart,

before,
behind,
below,
beneath,
beside or
besides,
between,
betwixt,
beyond,
by,
concerning,
down,
during,
except,
excepting,

for,

throughout, from, in, into,

to, notwithstanding, touching, of,

toward UT off,

towards,

under, out of,

underneatky over,

until, past,

unto, regarding, up, respecting, upon, round,

with, since,

within, through,

without

INTERJECTIONS.

An interjection is a word used to express some emotion of the mind; as, oh ! alas !

Interjections are to be found chiey in sentences expresetve af joy, sorrow, or reverence.

LESSON XIV.

INTERROGATIVES

see?

NIE. This lesson should be studied n connection with Flection IX. page 121.

Interrogatives are words used in asking questions.

There are three kinds of interrogatives, - pronouns, ad. jectives, and adverbs.

Interrogative pronouns are used to inquire for some per son or thing. They are who, which, and what.

Who is used to inquire for persons ; what, as a pronoun, inquires for things ; which refers to one of several persons or things; as, Who wrote ? James."

What do you A tree.Which shall I take? The largest one." Interrogative adjectives are used to inquire for some de. scription of a person or thing. They are, which, what, joined to the noun to be described; how many, used to in. quire for number; as, “What book have you? A blank book.” “Which path shall we follow? The right-hand path.” How many lessons has he learned ? Four lessons.”

Interrogative adverbs inquire for some circumstance of place, time, cause, or manner; as, “Where, when, why, how, did he go?"

For a list of the several interrogatives, see I 258, (a.)

LESSON XV.

CONNECTIVES

Connectives are words used to unite the elements of a sentence; as, “When a wise man is derided by a foolish he will not be indignant."

Connectives ar; divided into two classes, – coördinato
and subordinate.

Coördinate connectives are always conjunctions. They
are used to unite either coördinate clauses or coördinate
parts of a clause; as, “ Life is short, and art is long ;"
** Vice and misery are inseparable."

Coördinate conjunctions are of three kinds, - copulative,
adversative, and alternatire. (See || 157, and Sections I
II and III Chapter IV.)

A subordinate connective is used to join a subordinate
clause to some preceding word or clause ; as," i knew that
he was deceitful.”

Subordinate connectives are conjunctions, relative pro.
nouns, and conjunctive adverbs.

Subordinate connectives are used to connect tha three
kinds of clauses, - substantive, adjective, and adverbial.

Substantive clauses are connected by that and the varicus
interrogatives. (See || 258, 1, 2,

Adverbial clauses are connected by conjunctive adverbs
Adjective clauses are connected by relative pronouns.

A relative pronoun is used to represent a preceding noul
or pronoun, called the antecedent, and to connect with it
the adjective clause which depends upon and limits it.

For the different relatives, and their different uses, see Sec
tion III. page 135.

Relative and interrugative pronouns have the same acci-
dents as the noun or personal pronoun, namely, number,
person gender, and case, and are thus declined :

Sirg. and Plur. Sing, and Pluar
Nom. Who

Which,
Piss. whose,

whose,
Otj. whom.

which.
Instead of whose, of which is most commonly used as the poo
massive of which.

What and that are used only in the nom'native and ab.
iective cases.

3.)

« ForrigeFortsæt »