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Analyze what you have written, telling the number and gender of each noun.
III.- Person of the Subject.
50. The person of the subject is that property which shows its relation to the speaker.
51. The speaker may sustain one of three relations to the subject; he may be himself the subject, he may speak to the subject, or he may speak of the subject. These relations are denominated the first second, and third persons respectively; as, “ I write;" “ You write;" “He writes."
(a.) These relations are indicated by the word employed; as, 1, thou, he. Hence any change in the relation is indicated by a change in the word; as, “ 1 write," “ You write."
52. To denote these three relations, a peculiar class of words is used, called personal pronouns.
(a) These pronouns are not used simply to avoid repetition. The subject in the first and second persons must always be a pro
A noun cannot be employed. One would not be anderstood to speak of himself, if he should say, “ Henry wrote:" he must say, “I wrote.” We should say, for the second person, " You read,” and not “ Alexander reads.” But in the third person, the name of the subject may be used, as, “ Henry wrote," and, to avoid repetition, “ He wrote.”
(6.) These pronouns are called personal, because they are used to indicate the grammatical accident person. They show the relation of the subject to the speaker.
(c.) These pronouns are sometimes called substantive, because they may take the place of the noun in any of its relations ; whereas the relative pronoun can never become the subject of a "entence, though it may be the subject of a dependent proposition Hence the relitive pronoun cannot be considered in this con Dection
63. The personal pronouns which may represent the subject are, First Person, . I, .. singular.
YE, Yɔu,... plural.
feminine, . She, singular. Ther, plush neuter, ..
. IT, NOTE Study Lesson V. in Appendix, and then perform the ollowing erercises :
Analyze the following propositions, and give the derson of each subject :I am well. You sit.
We have come. He is delirious. Thou art the man. Wisdom is profitable. Paul preached. She is writing. It is true. They labor. Ye resist Boys play. Larks sing. Insects buzz.
Write subjects in the FIRST, SECOND, inil THIRT persons respectively, to each of the following predi. cates, making such changes in třem as may be necessary :
Is late; am exhausted; is plundering; is a pupil; might he educated; is affable; art content; play ; sing ; lead ; is a mathematician ; will be satisfied ; can find ; did de fend ; does reply.
MODEL. We are late. Thou art late. He is late,
IV. - Case of the Subject.
54. Case denotes the relation of a noun or pronou.. to other words.
55. There are three cases, the nominative, por sessive, and objective.
56. The case of the subject denotes its relation to the predicate, and is always nominative; hence the following rule:
RULE I. A noun or pronoun used as the subject of a proposition must be in the nominative case.
NOTE. The rules for construction will be given whenever the principles on which they are founded are developed. They should be strictly observed in writing sentences, and applied in parsing.
57. Parsing consists in naming a part of speech, giving its modifications, relation, agreement or dependence, and the rule for its construction. Analysis consists in pointing out the words or groups of words which constitute the elements (8) of a seutence. Analysis should precede parsing.
NOTE. Study Lesson VI. in the Appendix
MODELS FOR ANALYSIS AND PARSING.
proposition. George . . is the subject, because it is that of which the
action " writes" is affirmed. Writes .. is the predicate, because it is the action affirmed
of “George.” George , is a proper noun, of the third person, singular
number, masculine gender, nominative case, and is the subject of the proposition, “George
writes ;” according to Rule I., " A noun or pronoun used as the subject of a proposition must be in the nominative case.”
He is active. It s a simple sentence lecause it contains but one
proposition. Hle..... is a personal pronoun, of the third person, sin
gular number, masculine gender, nominative case, and is the subject of the proposition, “ He is active;" according to Rule I.
Analyze the following propositions, and parse the rubjects : :I am prepared. Jesus wept.
Milo lifted. Money to mpted. Rain descended. Abraham was faithful. Job Nes patient. Comets appear. Planets revolve. Solonion prayed. They will quarrel. He is ruined. David was Ring. We must study. England was invaded. William conquered. Harold was defeated. Exercise strengthens.
Stealing is base. Thou art seated. She is coming. It rains. It snows. It lightens. You can sing. He is detestable. Fishes swim.
Write subjects to the following predicates : — Is a monster; are coming; is burning ; neigh ; art wise were handled; is numbered; is a giant; are reptiles; are vegetables ; is a beverage ; is impossible ; will be defeat ed; paints ; draws; is a conductor; dances.
Write ten entire sentences of your own, having only a subject and predicate ; select also the subjects and predicates from ten sentences in your Reading Lesson.
MODIFICATIONS OF THE PREDICATE
58. Any change which varies the application, or meaning of the predicate, whether produced by altering either of the words (copula or attribute) which represent it, or by adding other words to it, is called a modification of the predicate.
(a.) As it is the chief office of the subject to represent some person or thing as the basis of an affirmation, so it is the princi. pal office of the predicate * to denote what is affirmed. But, like the subject, it can be made, by certain changes, to represent other properties not essential to it as predicate.
(6.) These changes are produced either by varying the form of the attribute (34) or copula, or by adding other words to one or both of them.
59. When the modification takes place by uniting two verbal forms, or by altering the form either of the copula or attribute, (41,) it is called an accident or an accidental property of the predicate; and the variation is called an inflection.
(a.) T'he verbs which unite with others to form the various modifications of the predicate, are called auxiliaries.
(b.) When the predicate is modified by the addition of any other word than an auxiliary verb, a new e.ement of the sentence is introduced ; as, “ Birds fly swiftly;
" Edmund sold oranges,' (40, note.)
1.- MODIFICATIONS OF THE PREDICATE-NOMI
60. When the attribute of the predicate (34) is a boun or pronoun, it may le varied. like the subject
Predicate, from the Latin word predicare, to aflirm, declare