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LESSON X.

BIO DE OF THE VERB.

" 66

Note. This lesson is referred to on page 38.

Mode shows the manner in which an attribute is assertod of :ne subject.

There are commonly reckoned five modes, - the indicative, potential, subjunctive, imperative, and infinitive.

The indicative rnode asserts a thing as actually exist. ing; as, “ James is rich; George writes.”

The potential mode asserts a thing as possible, probable, or necessary; as, “ James may be rich ; "“George must write."

The subjunctive mode asserts a thing as conditional or doubtful; as, “ If James be rich ;” “ Should George write."

The imperative mode asserts a command, an exhortation, an entreaty, or a permission; as, “ Write ;” “Go thou ;” “ Be satisfied."

The infinitive * represents an attribute as an abstract noun; as, “to be rich ;“to write."

The indicative, potential and imperative modes are used in principal propositions. The subjunctive is always nsed in subordinate propositions, and the iranitive and participles, in abridged propositions.

* The infinitive is here placed among the modes, because it has been thus ranked by common consent; yet it is as really a participle as the forms which bear that name. It does not assert action at all, and therefore cannot properly be said to have mode. It is the simple name of the verb, taken abstractly, and partakes of the properties of the noun and verb, just as the participle partakes of the properties of the adjective and verb. Both are used in abridged propositions, (347, 353,) one in reducing subg'antive and the other in reducing adjective clauses.

NOTE. The indicative and potential modes are often used in subordinate propositions. The impe ative mode is sometimes diade subordinate in direct quotation; as, “ God said, Let there be light.”

PARTICIPLES.

A participle is a form of the verb by which the being aciion, or state, is used as an adjective.

The participle is so called, because it participates of the proper ties of the verb and adjective. (See 65, a.)

There are two participles, — the present and perfect ; as, reading, having read.

These two participles correspond to the present and perfect tenses in each of the three grand divisions of time. (81, a.)

Transitive verbs have an active and passive participle.

EXAMPLES.

ACTIVE

PASSIVE.

Present. Loving,
Perfect. Having loved,

Loved or being loved.
Having been loved.

Though there are but two distinct participles, there are three different forms called participles, (see 89,) — the present, the past, and the perfect.

The past participle is never used except in combination with Bome modification hade, to form the perfect tenses; as, have Looed, had loved, to have loved, having loved. It belongs to all verbs, transitive and intransitive. It has an active signification, denotes past time, but is never used, lik, the other forms, to limit a noun by expressing an assumed attribute. Its entire use is, to aid in the formation of the tenses. The past participle is, bowever, identical in form with the present passive participle, when used without being. Mark the difference in the follow ing examples :-“The boy has respected the wishes of his pa. rents; '“ The boy lives (being) respected by all.” In the last example, " respected" has a passive signification, denotes present

time, and limits “ böy" by assuming (not affirming) that he is 28 1 certain state. This last is called the passive participle of “ respect;" respecting being the corresponding active participle Intransitive verbs have no passive participle.

The present active participle denotes an action or state present but unfinished at the time denoted by the principal verb; as, “ We found him sitting in a chair.”

The present passive participle denotes the reception of an act, which is present at the time denoted by the prin. cipal verb; as, “ He lives loved by all."

The perfect active participle denotes an action or state past and completed at the time denoted by the principal verb; as, “ Having finished his speech, he sat down."

The perfect passive participle denotes the reception of an act past and completed at the time denoted by the prin. cipal verb; as, “ Having been driven from home, he en. listed in the army."

Participles, like the subordinate clauses for which they stand, (see note, page 175,) denote a time present or past in relation to the principal verb, and not in relation to the speaker. Hence the present participle may denote, with reference to the speaker, present, past, or future time. So the perfect participle may dea note an act completed in past, present, or future time. It is worthy of notice, that each grand division of time has two tenses, – a present and a perfect (81, a.); and that this distinction exists in all the verbal forms, the infinitive and participles as well as the modes properly so called.

A participle, like an adjective, may be either assumed or predicated of a noun; as, “A loat sailing on the water 18 a pleasant object : "" The boat is sailing on the water.”

An assumed participe, with the words depending upon it, is equivalent to a subordinate clause.

The active participle, when predicated, constitutrs, with the copula, the progressive form of the verb; as "The farmer was reaping."

The passive participle, when predicated, forins, with the ropula, the passive verb; as, “His expectations were realized."

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Note. Foi participi al nouns, see page 86.

LESSON XI.

TENSE OF THE VERB.

Tense: denotes the time of an action or event.

There are three divisions of time, the past, the pres. ent, and the future.

Each division has two tenses, an absolute and a rela. tive. There are, therefore, six tenses, — three absolute and three relative.

The absolute tenses take the name of the division to which they belong, namely, the present tense, the past tense, and the future tense.

The relative tenses add to the name of the division the word "perfect;" -- present perfect, past perfect, future perfect.

The present tense denotes present time; as, “I write."

The present perfect tense denotes past time completed in the present; as, “ I have written.

The past tense denotes past time ; as, “I wrote."

The past perfect tense denotes past time completed in the past; as, “ I had written."

The future tense denotes future time; as, “I shall write."

The future perf sct tense denotes a future time com. pieted in the future as, “ I shall have written.'

FORMS OF THE VERB.

There are three different forms of the verb, in the ao Live voice, namely, the common, the emphatic, the progresside; to these may be added the passive.

COMMON FORM.

The tenses of the common form are thus formed:

INDICATIVE MODE.

Absolute
Tenses.

The present is the first or simple form of the verb as,

love. The past is the second form of the verb; as, loved

The future is formed by joining to the simple verb the auxiliary shall or will ; as, shall love, will love.

The present perfect is formed by joining the present tense of hade to the past participle of the verb; as, have loved.

The past perfect is formed by joining the past tense of have to the past participle ; as, had looed.

The future perfect is formed by joining the future tense of have to the past participle; as, shall hade loved.

Rolatido
Tenses.

POTENTIAL MODE.

Absolute
Tenses.

The present potential is formed by joining the present tense of may, can, or must, to the simple or first form of the verb; as, may, can, or must look.

The past potential is formed by joining the past tenses of may, can, will, or shall, to the simple form of the verb; as, might, could, would, or should love.

The present perfect is formed by joining the present potential of hade to the past participle; as, may, tan, or must have loved.

The past perfect is formed by joining the past po. tential of have to the past participle ; as, might, could, would or should have loved.

Relatide
Tonses.

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