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Nom.
Poss.
Obj.

5. GOODNESS.

THIRD PERSON. Neuter Sing. Plur.

Sing.

Plur.
Goodness, Wanting. Nom. It, They,
Goodness',

Poss. Its, Their, tbein,
Goodness.

Obj. It.

Them.

LESSON VII.

ADJECTIVE WORDS.

Note. This lesson is referred to on pages 31 and 50.

That part which relates to page 31 will be found under the head of “ Qualifying Adjectives." All words which have the construction of the adjective, are here considered under the head of “ Adjective Words," whatever may be their particular classih. cation.

An adjective is a word used to limit or qualify the meaning of a noun.

Ai! aajective words are aivided into two classes - jimit. ing and qualifying

1.-LIMITING ADJECTIVES

A limiting adjective is used to define or restrict the meaning of a noun, without expressing any of its qualities, as, the house;" “ five books;” “ Arabian horses.”

Articles.

The particular limiting adjectives the, and a or an, por called articles.

The is called the definite article, because it points ou some particular thing; as, “ the desk," “ the sun.”

A or an is called an indefinite article, because it does not point out any particular thing; as, “a pen; chard.”

An is used before a vowel sound, and a before a consonan. sound; as, “ an apple ; " "a pin.”

1
Pronominal Adjectives.

an or

Those limiting adjectives which may, without the use of the article, represent a noun when understood, are called pronominal adjectives ; as, That [book] is his; this is yours.”

Qualifying adjectives may represen, a noun when understood, but the article must be prefixed; as, “ The good are happy.”

The principal pronominal adjectives are, this, that, these, those, former, lattor, which, what, each, every, either, neither come, one, none, any, all, such, many, much.

When such adjectives represent a noun understood, they are generally called pronouns. They may more properly he celled pronominal adjectives used as rouns; as, “ This is my book.” The articles neve: represent a noun understood.

Numeral Adjectives Numeral adjectives are used to express number; as, ume, two, three, &c.

Numerals are divided into two classes,
Cardinal; as, one, two, three, four, &c.;-
Ordinal ; as, first, second, third, fourth, &c.

Circumstantial Adjectives. Circumstantial adjectives are such as derute some cir cumstance, generally of time or place; as, “a morning

" "an eastern custom ; a Turkish vessel."

walk;

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II.-QUALIFYING ADJECTIVES.

a

A qualifying adjective is one which limits the meaning of a noun, by denoting some property or quality ; as, virtuous man;

" "a running horse.” To this class of adjectives belong the participles, which have the signification of the verb and the construction of the adjective. (77, a.)

COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES.

When different objects are compared with each other, the adjective expressing the property by means of which they are compared, undergoes a change called comparison.

There are three degrees of comparison, - the positive, comparative, and superlative.

The positive simply denotes a quality; as, righteous, pleasant.

The comparative shows that one of two objects pos

SENSAS a quality in a higher degree than the other ass This tree is taller than that.'

The superlative shows that one of several objects pos Besses a quality in the highest degree, when compared with all the rest; as, “ That pine is the tallest tree in the grovo."

The comparative of monosyllables is regularly for.ned by adding r or er, and the superlative by adding st or est, to the positive; as, wise, wiser, wisest ; bold, bo!der, boldest.

The comparative of most adjectives of more than cne syllable, is formed by prefixing more or less, and the superlative, by prefixing most or least, to the positive; as, in dustrious, more industrious, most industrious.

The following adjectives are compared irregularly :- good, better, best ; bad, worse, worst; ill, worse, worst ; little, less or lesser, lcast; much, more, most; many, more, most ; far, farther, farthest ; near, nearer, nearest or next ; late, later, latest or last old, older or elder, oldest or eldest.

LESSON VIII.

CLASSES OF VERBS.

See page 34.

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A verb is a word which expresses being, action, or state; as, be, read, sleep, is loved.

The being, action, or state, may be affirmed, assumed, (' used abstractly; as, “George runs ;” “Gecrge running; i to run."

Verbs are divided, according to their use, into transitio and intransitive.

A transitive verb requires the addition of an object to complete its meaning; as, James struck John.”

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Present.

Past.

An intransitive verb does not require the addition of að object to complete its meaning; as, “ The horse runs."

Verbs are divided, according to their form, into reguler and irregular.

A regular verb is one in which the past tense and past participle are formed by adding d or ed to the presentas, love, loved, loved; gæin, gained, gained.

An irregular verb is one in which the past tense and past participle are formed in some other way; as, see, saw, seen; write, wrote, written.

The present, past, and past participle of a verb are called its principal parts.

The following list contains the principal parts of the irregular verbs :

Past Participle
Abide,
Abode,

Abode.
Am,

Been.
Awake,
Awoke, B

Awaked
Bear, (to bring forth,) Bore,

Born.
Bear, (to carry) Bore,

Borne.
Beat,
Beat,

Beaten, beat
Begin,
Began,

Begun.
Bend,
Bent, R

Bent.
Bereave,
Bereft, R.

Bereft, R.
Beseech,
Besought,

Besought
Bid,
Bid, bade,

Bidden, bid.
Bind,
Bound,

Bound.
Bite,
Bit,

Bitten, bit.
Bleed,
Bled,

Bled.
Blow,
Blew,

Blown.
Break,
Broke,

Broken.
Breed,

Bred.
Bring,
Brought

Brought.
Build,
Built, R.

Built.
Burnt, R.

Was,

Bred,

Burn,

Burnt, R.

* Those verbs whose past tense or past participle is followed by R, have also regular form ; ae, awoke or awakea

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