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fruit, clothing, ink, grass, sky, cherries, silver, fruitsul. diers, labor, wool, Mary.

MODEL. Life is short. Peaches are ripe. Predicate the class or SPECIES (36, c.) of the following subjects :

Henry, lemons, ducks, lilies, city, dogs, trouts, lions, lead sneep, marbles, knives, air, Peter, Stephen, David.

MODEL. Henry is a scholar. Lemons are fruit. Let the pupil select the subjects and predicates of each sentence from a paragraph in his reading lesson, and tell whether action, quality, or species, is predicated.

EXERCISE 4. Note. Before performing this exercise, learn Lesson II. in the Appendix.

Analyze the following propositions, and tell which subjects are PROPER, which are common, and which are COLLECTIVE, nouns :

Alexander conquered. Zeno was a philosopher. Gray was a poet. Orders were issued. Snow falls. Temperance is a virtue. Waves dash. Darkness prevails. The

The school was dismissed. The council was divided. Wrestling is dangerous. Lying is wicked Charles reads Age overtakes. Poets sing. Winds blow

army marched.

Exercise 5.

Write subjects to the following predicates :

Proper Nouns. Is able; was prevented; believes; engs; dances; pays; is a merchant; is a teacher ; is da nghted ; must come; is honorable ; is faithful.

MODEL. Samuel is at le

Common Nouns. Run; is content; is laudable; u pleasant; is consumed; can live; write; are trees ; are birds ; are fishes; is desirable; is contemptible.

Model. Horses run. Collective Nouns. Was divided ; was convened; wers pleased; was defeated, was dismissed.

Model. The school was divided.

Note. The pupil should review these exercises before com mencing Section 101. He should be required to point out the nouns, derbs, and adjectives, giving the class of each noun (See App. Les. II.)



40. Any change in the application of the subject, whether produced by altering the word which represents it, or by adding other words to it, is called a modification of the subject.

Although it is the principal office of the subject * to represent some person, thing, or some abstract idea, as the basis of an affirmation, yet the mechanism of language affords certain means by which its application may be so varied as to accommodate 1: to the existing state of the fact to be predicated.

The application of the subject may be varied,

Ist. By some change in the word which represents it; as, “ Tho poldier perished;

" " The soldiers perished;' " the assertion in the first sentence applying to one person, that in the second to wre than one;


Subject is derived from the Latin word subjectus, placed under, i e., as the foundation of the sente ice

2d. By additional words; as, “ Ten soldiers perished," i Brarı Roldiers perished.” Here the subject, “ soldiers,” is restricted in its application to a certain number, (ten,) or to a certain class, (hrare.)

Note. As this latter species of modification introduces a new element of the sente ce, any further consideration of it must be deferred for the present.

41. When the application of the subject is varied by some change or inflection in the word which represents it, the modification is called an accident, or an accidental property; as, “ brother, brothers ; " " priest, priestess ;” “man, men.”

42. The accidental properties of the subject, or of the noun, in any relation, are number, gender, person, case.

(a.) These properties belong to the noun or pronoun, either as subject, (31,) attribute, (15,) or object, (117.)

(6.) The accidents of the subject are shown,- 1st. By a change of forra; as,“ bird, birds ; "“hero, hero-ine;” - 2d. By a change of the word itself; as, “ He sings," (when I speak of the singer ;) “ You sing,” (when I speak to the singer ;) “ I sing,' (when I am the singer ;) - 3d. By a prefix; as, “a he-goat," "a cock-sparrow.

(c.) Some nouns admit of no in lection to denote a change in their application; as, deer, sheep, termin.

1.-- Number of the Subject.

43. The subject may represent one person or thing, or more than one, as acting; as, “ The branch withered ; " " The branches withered."

44. There are two numbers, the singurar ana the plural. The singular denote: but one object the plural more han one.

(a.) Civmber is usually indicated by a change of form.

Note. For the formation of the plural, see App. Lesson 111 which should be studied before attending to the following exercise.


Analyze the following examples, giving the numher and class of each noun :

Columbus sailed. Stars shine. James decreed. Corn. wallis surrendered. Candia is an island. Socrates was poisoned. Lions roar. Grapes fall.

Trees decay. Churches stand. Foxes are cunning. Weeds overrun Benjamin was seen. Silver shines. Pencils are used Washington was president Kings are rulers. Eggs are: broken. Vinegar is sour.

Write predicates to the plurals of the following nouns :

Star, son, pipe, monarch, church, hero, fife, ox, cargo, ship, man, child, lily, wolf, wife, folio, muff, negro, sheep, mystery, vermin, lady, turkey, chief, hoof, mouse, goose, fly, box, day, duty.

MODEL. Stars shine. Sons obey.

II. - Gender of the Subject.

45. All animals of the same species are either male or female. From this distinction arises the grammattcal accident gender.

46. Most nouns denoting the different relations among men, and those of the most common and niseful animals, also indicate their sex; as, father, mother ; uncle, aunt ; son, daughter; ram, ewe; cock ken.

any such

47. But, to those animals which are less usefui, ur are less obserred by man, but one name is given for toe male and female; as, sparrow, mouse, pigeon.

(a.) In such cases, the sex is usually determined by a prefix M, cock-sparrow, he-mouse.

(6.) Some nouns denoting the mutual relations among men do not indicate sex; as, parent, teacher, child.

48. Inanimate objects are incapable distinction as sex; yet the term gender, as a grammatica, distinction, is applied to nouns denoting such objects.

49. There are, therefore, three distinctions called genders,—the masculine, the feminine, and the neuter.

(a.) Gender is indicated either by the word itself, by a change in the word, or by a prefix or suffiz.

Note. The pupil should now study Lesson IV. in the Ap pendix.


Write subjects to the following predicates :Masculine Gender. Conquered ; is wise ; was detested , is a blacksmith; is discreet; are confiding; are discharged , is lame; are emigrating ; is benevolent; us grateful; will devour; gnaw; will fight; complain; eat.

Feminine Gender. Is brooding; lowed; is playing sings; is cheerful; rodo ; is a teacher; is practising can

was injured ; are anxious; are faithful; aro chirping; are attentive.

Neuter Gender. Roll ; grow ; is solid ; is deceptive; blows; shines; is falling ; is a vegetable. MODELS. Alexander conquere 1. The hen is brooding

Stones roll.


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