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(a.) When the resemblance is stated formally, the figuro is called a simile; as, “ They rushed through like a hurricane.'' (b.) A continued metaphor is called an allegory.

432. Personification attributes to inanimate ob. lects some of the qualities of living beings; as, • The sky saddens with the gathered storm.”

(a.) These two figures generally produce some change in the use of pronouns; as when we apply the feminine pronoun she (not it) to the moon; or when we say of a statesman,“ He is the pillar which (not who) supports the state.” 433. Metonymy is a change of name.

It gives to one object the name of another which is related to it; as, crown for king, chair for president.

434. Synecdoche is the use of a part for the whole, or the whole for a part; as, roof for house.

435. Irony is the use of a word for its opposite. 436. Hyperbaton is the transposition of words. (a.) This figure has already been explained in Sec. II. of this chapter

EXERCISE 66.

Tell what figures are used in the following sen

tences :

A Greek Dictionary. Impossible! Go. He speaks as if he had been sick I saw it with my eyes. He walked on foot. Dark burned the candle. For Renard close attended at his heels. And he taketh with him Peter, and James and John, and began to be sore amazed. Devotion 's a delicate and tender plant. The cherished fields put on their winter robe of purest white. The boy has read Virgil. They have Moses anu the prophets. His arm is conquest, and his frown is fate. This roof protects you lle was as virtuous as Nero, and as patriotic as Arnold.

SECTION IV.

EQUIVALENTS.

437. Two different expressions, meaning tha same thing or nearly the same, are called equivakents; as, “Xerxes ordered that Mardonius should remain in Greece = Mardonius to remain in Greece."

(a.) Equivalent expressions often have shades of difference in meaning. In the above example, the first Italicized form implies that the command was given in a general way; the second, that it was given personally to Mardonius.

(6.) Equivalents in signification are by no means equivalenta in grammatical construction; nor is the grammatical construction of one form accounted for by explaining that of its equivalent.

438. Two different words, meaning the same thing, or nearly the same, are called synonymes ; as, relinquish = abandon.

(a.) There are, in most cases, shades of difference betwees words considered as synonymous.

439. By means of equivalents, synonymes, or both, any sentence may be materially changed in form, with little or no change in meaning.

440. In simple sentences we may obtain equivalent forms,

(a.) By denying the opposite of that which is affirmed; as, “He was not unskilful" =“He was tilful ;

(6.) By using the passive for the active voice, or the active for the passive; as, “Columbus discovered America = "America was discovered by Polunibus ; "

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(C.) By expanding or abridging an element (178, b.); as, “A morning ride is refreshing ”="A ride in the morning is refreshing ;

(d.) By using the expletive it (196, a.); as, "To see the sun is pleasant" =“It is pleasant to see the sun.'

Note. Synonymes may be employed with any of these -hanges

441. A simple sentence may be changed to a complex by expanding any one of its elements into a proposition; as, Having completed his discovery, Hudson descended the river"=" After he had completed his discovery,&c.

442. A complex sentence may be changed to an equivalent simple sentence by abridging its subordinate clause. (342.)

443. A complex sentence may be changed to an equivalent complex sentence,

(a.) By making any of the changes mentioneul in 1 440, a, b, c, d, in either of its clauses;

(6.). By using various equivalent connectives, as, when for as or as soon as.

(c.) By using the expletive it. (See 282.)

444. A complex sentence may be changed to a compound, by raising its subordinate clause to an equal rank with the principal; as, “When spring comes, the flowers will bloom "="Spring comes, and the flowers bloom."

445. A compound sentence may be changed to a complex, by making ore of its clauses subordi. nate; as, “ Man has a m'ral sense, and, thereform, he is an accountable being' = " Since man has a moral sense, he is an accountable being."

446. A compound sentence may be changed to an equivalent compound, by altering either of its clauses. (440, a, b, c, d.)

447. A question for gaining assent may be changed into a declarative sentence, or a declarative sentence into a question for gaining assent. (See 395.)

Note. After the learner has acquired a correct knowledge of the various forms and conditions of the elements of a sentence, perhaps no exercise, in connection with composition, will prove more beneficial than that of re-writing. sentences, for the purpose of altering and improving, if possible, their form or arrangement. It is the only substitute which the mere English scholar can have for translation, an exercise which consists in obtaining equivalent forms in one language for given forms in another. It is to exercises of this kind that Dr. Franklin attributes his skill in writing. It is a sure way to give the pupil variety of expression, copious. ness of diction, and a knowledge of the flexibility and power of the language. As it respects a choice of words and expressions, no rules of grammar can materially aid the learner. He should study standard authors, such as Addison, Middleton, and Irving. A perusal of these will assist him in obtaining correct forms of expression, and enable him to avoid all low and unauthorized words.

EXERCISE 67. Alter the following sentences by using synonymes :

Thankfulness is an agreeable feeling. They are sowing the seeds of strife. The hypocrite writhes in agony. The maid-servant is lighting the fire. They shrink from the contest. He is slay ing his enemies.

MODEL. Gratitude is a delightful emotion, Take a page from your reading lesson, ana maka any of the changes mentioned in this section.

APPENDIX.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR teaches the principles of the Eng. lish language.

These principles refer to the formation of words or the formation of sentences.

The first department embraces orthography and etymol. agy, - the second, syntax and prosody.

NOTE. Prosody relates to the formation of sentences int

Terse.

Orthography treats of letters and their various combine cions. Etymology treats of

e different classes of words and their various modifications.

Syntax treats of the construction of sentences.
Prosody treats of the laws of versification.

OR THOGRAPHY.

LESSON I.

ORTHOGRAPHY treats of letters and their various combinations,

A letter is a character used to represent an elementary sound of the language.

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