Billeder på siden
[ocr errors]

tic figure emerged from the gloom; the wreath of freedom decorated her brow; her breastplate was the shield of faith. Superstition trembled at her coming. Tyranny fled before her footsteps. At her voice the wilderness blossomed, and the desert became as the peop ed city.

Point out the inversions in the following sentences, and show what element is transposed :

Great is the theme, though weak the lay. Because the night was dark, they did not proceed. With regard to morality, I was not indifferent. On the following day, they walked together in the garden.

Seven circling planets I behold,

Their different orbits all describe. Whom, therefore, ye ignorantly worship, him declare I unto you. Anxiously did we watch every movement.

Take some inverted passage of poetry and arrange it grammatically.

Arrange the following displaced elements so that they will make sense :

He himself as well as he could concealal, and hasten on Thomas bade. We our cause, by calling in that which is weak injure often, to support that is strong which. The world we in others approving follow, but in ourselves approving before it go. Of our populaticn, the march west ward, with consequences, in some degree has been attended, novel, in the human mind history of. Greatness his un. searchable is, and past finding out ways his. Of the new year what the charm is ? Improve the arrat.gement of the following sentences :

Impart to them, in addition to their hereditary valor, that confidence of success which springs fron thy presence. The long voyage he has to make, to an A verican visiting É e, is an excellent preparative. He will make order, at last, tu arise from the seeming confusion of the world, who made light to spring from primeval darkness. If he was not the greatest kirg, he was the greatest actor of majesty at least, that ever filled the throne. He has not only disturbed our domestic, but our social relations.



418. Peculiarities of structure may refer to entire sentences or to their component parts.



419. A sentence may be either loose or compact. (a.) These are qualities belonging to complex or compound sentences.

(6.) Compact structure is often called periodic, and a compact sentence, a period.

420. A loose sentence is one in which the parts are related in thought, but are wholly independent of each other in construction; as, “ Three days they mourned over Carthon : on the fourth, his Cather died.”

(a.) The loose sentence is to be found chiefly among mom pound sentences.

(6.) The parts of a loose sentence are called its members. They may be either simple, complex, or compound.

(c.) Each member contains a distinct thought, and is uttered

as if it were a complete sentence; the voice falls at the end o: each member.

421. A com act sentence is one in which the parts are closely united both in thought and construction; as, “Though he slay me, yet will I trust in him."

(a.) This property belongs both to compound and complex mentences. The latter are seldom loose.

(6.) In uttering compact sentences, the voice is kept up till the elose.

(c.) Compact sentences are most closely united by means of correlatives.


Tell which of the following sentences are compact, and which are loose.

These minor comforts are all important in the estimation of narrow minds; and they either do not perceive, or wilı not acknowledge, that they are more than counterbalanced among us by great and generally diffused blessings. Let those who would affect singularity with success, first determine to be very virtuous, and they will be sure to be very singular. A revengeful knave will do more than he will say; a grateful one, will say more than he will do. We are sure to be losers when we quarrel with ourselves; it is a civil war, and in all such contentions, triumphs are defeats. When a man has displayed talent in some particu. lar path, and left all competitors behind him in it, the world are too apt to give him credit for a universality of genius, and to ant cipate for him success in all that he undertakes.

Write ten sentences, -— fiie compact and five loose.



422. Any departure from the ordinary rules of construction is called a figure. The following are the principal figures which affect the construction of words.

423. Ellipsis is the omission of a word, phrase, or clause, which is necessary to complete the con. struction.

(a.) Ellipsis should be distinguished from abridgment. (341.) In ellipsis some word is left out, but in abridgment an expression is shortened by a change of construction.

(6.) Ellipsis differs from contraction. By contraction a com. pound sentence, having some one element ur more in common, is reduced to a partial compound by using the common part but once; as, “ Cicero was a distinguished orator, and Demosthenes was a distinguished orator": " Cicero and Demosthenes wero distinguished orators.Although this last sentence is sometimes said to be elliptical, nothing is necessary to complete the con struction,

(c.) Ellipsis should be distinguished from a careless omission of words necessary a like to the construction and meaning.

424. Ellipsis generally takes place in exclamatory sentences, (397,) in responsives, in clauses denoting comparison, (333, a.) in inscriptions and titles, and after connectives; as, “Strange!"="It is strange." " Whom did you see? George = 1 saw George.” 6. T'he New Testament 6. This is the New Testament." " He is older than I - than I am old.” 425 P'leonasm is the opposite of ellipsis. It is the use of superfluous words; as, “I know thee who thou art;Verily, verily, I say unto you."

(a.) Pleonasm should be distinguished from expansion. The former consists in ajlding an element to express what has been already expressed, whereas the latter consists in changing the form at an expression for a more extended form, as an adverb, an adjecbive, or a noun, for an equivalent phrase or clause.

(6.) Pleonasm is allowable only in animated discourse, when an idea is to be rendered emphasic.

426. Enallage, which means exchange, is the use of one word or form for another.

427. Enallage may refer either to the form or meaning of words.

428. By enallage, as it respects the form of words,

(a.) One part of speech may be used for another; as, “ They fall successive(ly) and successive(ly] rise."

(6.) One number may be used for another; as, we for I, you for thou.

(c.) One tense may be used for another; as, “He riseth from supper, and laid aside his garments,” &c.

NOTE. When a past or future tense is exchanged for the present, the figure is called vision, that is, seeing past or future events as if present.

429. Enallage, as it respects the meaning of words, gives rise to several figures, called tropes.

430 The principal tropes are, metaphor, persone fication, netonymy, synecdoche, and irony.

431 Metaphor gives to an object the appropriate name of another object, on account of some resem. vlance between them; as, “Mar.! t'ou pruulum betwixt a smile and tear."

« ForrigeFortsæt »