« ForrigeFortsæt »
mankınd are ignorant. But is ignorance therefore honorable, or is learning contemptible or invidious ?
The first emotions which touched my breast were those of mingled pity and veneration. But how soon were a'l my feelings changed! The lips of Plato were never more worthy of a prognostic swarm of bees, than were the lips of this huly man. It was a day of the administration of the sacrament; and his subject, of course, was the passion of our Savior. I had heard the subject handled a thousand times: I had thought it exhausted long ago. Little did I suppose, that, in the wild woods of America, I was to meet with a man whose eloquence would give to this topic a new 9r.d more sublime pathos than I had ever before witnessed.
ARRANGEMENT OF THE ELEMENTS.
400. The arrangement of an element is the position which it takes in the sentence.
401. There are two kinds of arrangement;ihat which is usual, called the natural or grammatisal order; and that in which the elements are transposed, called the inverted or rhetorical order.
".- ARRANGEMENT OF THE PRINCIPAL ELE
402 In declarative sentences, the subject 19 placed before the pred: nate, the copu.. before the attrib, te, and the auxiliary before the principal verb; 23, “Cæsar conquered ; " “Life is short." 'James will write."
403. Inversion takes place when the predicate is made emphatic; as, “Great is Diana of the Ephesians ; " " Known unto God are all his works.”
(a.) In suc2 cases, the subject is generally placed between the attribute and copula, or the auxiliary and principal verb.
(6.) Inversion takes place in sentences introduced by ther, (35, b. 196, a.) or in sentences following nor or neither.
404. In direct interrogative sentences, the copula or auxiliary is placed first, the subject next, and the attribute or principal verb last; as, "Is he well ? " “Can you go?”
(a.) When the predicate is a simple form of the verb, it in placed before the subject; as, “ Say you this without a blush?'”
405. In indirect interrogative sentences, the interrogative is placed first, and the other parts are generally arranged as in direct interrogative sen. tences; as,
5. When did he come?" (a.) When the interrogative pronoun is in the nominative care, it stands before the predicate; as, “Who comes there?”
(b.) When the attrioute is the subject of inquiry, it should be placed before the copula, and the subject should be placed .aet; as, “ How high is the tree?” “ How old was the messenger
406. In imperative sentencesthe subject fol. lows the predicate, or is placed between the copula and attribute; as, “Go thou;” "Be ye content."
407. Exclamatory sentences follow the arrangement of the sentences from which they are de. yrved (397.)
408 In subordinate clauses, the connective is placed first, and then the subject and predicate.
. il. - ARRAGEMENT OF THE ADJECTIVE ELEMENT
409. The adjective element, if simple and of the first class, is placed hefore the noun; if of the second or third class, it is placed after the noun; as, “Wise men = men of wisdom=men who were wise were chosen."
(a.) The noun in apposition is placed afte the noun which it limits; as, “ George the king."
(6.) A coinplex adjective element is placed after the noun when it contains an element of the second or third class; as, « Men skilled in architecture,”
(c.) When an adjective element is of the first class, and com pound, it may be placed before or after the noun; as, “ Pure and ardent devotion,” or “Devotion pure and ardent.”
(d.) When an adjective limits the complex idea expressed by another adjective and noun, it inust be placed before them both; as, “ All good men;" “ That distinguished officer."
III. – ARRANGEMENT OF THE OBJECTIVE AND
410. The objective element of either class is placed after a transitive verb, and generally precedes the adverbial elenient; as, “Susan painted the picture elegantly ;” “I know that my Redeemer liveth."
411. The indirect object precudes the direct, when the preposition is omitted · 0:!lerwise it folows it ; as, “We gave him money;""We gavy money to him."
412. Inversion of the objective element takes place frequently in poetry, but seldom in prose ; as, Copernicus these wonders told.”
(a) As the relation of words in English is determined chiefly by their position, inversion of the object often renders the mean. ing of a sentence ambiguous; as “ Cæsar Brutus loved." Either 66 Cæsar
or “ Brutus" may be the object of " loved.” When the pronoun is used, inversion may take place without obscurino he sense; as, • Him followed his next mate."
413. The adverbial element of either class is placed after the word which it limits; as, “The letter was written correctly; " "He remained in Philadelphia ;” “We shall leave as soon as the storm abates."
(a.) As a general rule, an adverbial element of the first class is placed before one of the second, and one of the second before one of the third; as, “ He went EARLY in the morning ;"" Some per. sons beg their daily happiness FROM DOOR TO DOOR, as beggars do their daily bread."
414. Inversions take place more frequently in the adverbial element than in any other.
415. The simple adverb is often placed between the copula and attribute, or between the auxiliary and verb; as, “I shall immediately send for him;' - He is now convalescent."
(a.) Modal adverbs, and such as modify the whole sentence ore often placed at the beginning; as, “ Perhaps he will do it."
416. Adverbial elements of either class may be placed in either of three positions, — 1st, in their natural position after the predicate ; 2d, between the subject and predicate; or, 3d, at the head of the sentence
He examined the document care fully. 1s. Class. He carefully examined the document.
Carefully did he examine the document.
He invaded the country with a large army. 2d Class. He, with a large army, invaded the country.
With a large army, he invaded the country.
Flowers will bloom, when spring comes. 31 Class. Flowers, when spring comes, will bloom.
When spring comes, flowers will bloom. 417. In compound sentences, the clauses are successive. One can never be interposed between the parts of another.
Note. The perspicuity, harmony, strength, and beauty of & sentence often depend upon a skilful arrangement of its elements. No definite rules for arrangement can be given to guide the learner in all cases; he must rely mainly upon his own judg. ment, aided by the suggestions of his teacher. He will find it an excellent exercise, to take some well-written paragraph, and re arrange all its sentences, then compare the new arrangement with the old, and decide upon their merits.
Show which elements in the following sentences art a ranged grammatically, and which are inverted :
Powerful was the king of Alba ; numerous were his armies ; mighty his people. Two hemispheres acknowledged his sway. The sun rose in glory on his eastern cities, and set in splendor o'er his western people. As 'he trunk of a luxuriant tree borne down by its branches, so was the kingdom of Alba in the midst of its dependencies. The precursors of a storm were seen in the west ; a majes.