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380. The adjective element, in eithe class, is used to limit merely ; – to limit by denoting quality to limit by denoting identity, or to limit by denoting possession.

381. The objective element, in either class, is used to complete the meaning of a transitive verb.

382. The adverbial element, in either class, denotes the place, time, cause,

manner of an action.

383. Each element is subject to three conditions; it may be simple, complex, or compound.

(a.) When the subordinate elements are simple, the udjective belongs to the subject, (except when the predicate-nominative is used ;) the objective belongs to the predicate, (used only with tran. sitive verbs ;) the adverbial belongs to the predicate. When any one of these elements is complex, it may be formed by a union of either or all the others, so that an adverbial or objective ele. ment may be found in the subject, or an adjective in the predicate.

384. The follow ng table exhibits the different forms of the elements in the simple, the comzıler, or the compound sentence :

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Adj. + SUB 11 PRED. +. Obj. + Ado.
Class 1 1 1 1 1
Class 2 2 2 2 2
Class 3 3 3 3 3 Complex.



Adj. +5 :P. + Osj. + Ado.

1 11 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3

Adj + S :P. + Ohj. + Adv.

1 11 1 1
2 2 2 2 2 Comp
3 3 3 3 3

The different coördinate conjunctions tear some resemblanos to the three algebraic eigns, t, -, £; the first representing the copulatide, the sec nd, the addcrsatide the third, the allernative

385. These elements are united by connectives.

286. The subject and predicate are united by tne copula, either distinct or involved in the verb.

387. The other elements are united either subordinately or coördinately.

388. Subordinate e.ements are united immediately, if of the first class, — by means of prepositions, if of the second, - by means of relative pronouns, conjunctions, or conjunctive adverbs, if of the third.

389. Coordinate elements of either class are connected by conjunctions.

390. Conjunctions, or conjunctive words, are divided into two classes, — coördinate and subordinate. The former are used in compound or partial compo'ind sentences, and the latter in complex.

391. The coördinate conjunctions are often placed at the beginning of an entire sentence, or even a paragraph. They then connect the thought contained in the sentence or paragraph which follows, to that which precedes.

(a.) Sonietimes subordinate connectives, especially for and because, are placed at the beginning of an entire sen. tence. In such cases, some principal clause is understood; as, [lt is so,] “ For I delight in the law of God after the inner man."

(b.) It is worthy of notice, that coördinate conjunctions are employed to connect elements of the same class as well as the hame rank; whereas subordinate connectives join elements differ. ing both in rank and class ; as, “I know that the eye of the public is upon me, and that I shall be ield responsible for every act;' "I will sustain the statEMENT whi n I hare made

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192. In the preceding chapters, we have ex. ,-ained the different species of words, phrases, ana clauses, which enter into the formation of a sen. tence. We are now to regard the sentence as a complete structure, entering in as a component part of a paragraph.

393. Sentences thus considered are divided into four classes, — declarative, interrogative, imperative, and exclamatory.

394. A declarative sentence is a dec.aration or statement, either affirmative or negative, and is the appropriate form for narrative and didactic composition.

395. An interrogative sentence is a question, either direct or indirect, and is the appropriate form to be employed in seeking for information or gain ing the assent of others.

(a) In questions for gaining assent, not should be inserted it we expect an afhrinative answer, and omitted if we expect a neg. ative ; as, “ Is there not an appointed time to man on the earth I Ves.) “ Doth God pervert judgment?" (No.] Hence,

16) If not is found in the q estion, it should rermitted a the anzwer, and should be inserted in the answer when it is Rot found in the question; as, “ There is an appointed time to man on the earth; " • God doth not pervert judgment.”

396. An imperative sentence is used to express a mommand, an entreaty, an exhortation, or a prayer; as, “Let us go ;”? « May the truth prevail.” (a.) of this kind of sentence there are two forms,

one in which the verb is in the imperative mode, and one in which it is in the potw siial. (See the above examples.)

(6.) An imperative sentence, when uttered by one who has authority, is a command; when uttered by one without authority, is nothing more than an exhortation or entreaty; when uttered by an inferior, is a prayer.

397. An exclamatory sentence is either a declar. ative, interrogative, or imperative sentence, so uttered as to express passion or emotion; as, " The fce is gone!“Was it not strange!” “Make haste!

(a.) Exclamatory sentences are often so elliptical as to be. come mere fragments of a sentence; as, Strange! Impossible !

(6.) Exclamatory expressions are often of the nature of the interjection; as, Mercy! Goodness! Horo strange!

398. Each kind of sentence may be simple, compler, or compound. The compound may be either partial or complete. (See noo at the bottom of page 75.)

399. The parts of a compouna sentence may be all of the same species, that is, all declarative, all interrogative, &c.; or they may be of different spe

“Give me the means, and I will causa the work to be completed;” “He came, but where is he now?"

(a.) Such sentences are called mixed; they may be formed by miting any two of the four species c senterces

cies ; as,


Note. After the general character of a sentence has bee given, it may be analyzed according to the preceding models.

But for what else can you find no leisure? Do you fina nene for amusement ? Or is amusement itself your occupalion ? Perhaps pleasure is the pressing business of your life; perhaps pleasure stands waiting to catch your precious moments as they pass. Do you find none for the pursuit of secular knowledge? If you find none, then, for religion, it is perhaps because you wish to find none ; it would be, you think, a tasteless occupation, an insipid entertainment.

The first sentence is a simple, indirect interrogative sentence. The second is a simple, direct interrogative sentence. The third the same. The fourth is a com. pound declarative sentence; the first part is simple, the second complex, (360.) The fifth is a simple, direct interrogative sentence. The sixth is a compound declarative sentence having two parts, both complex.


Analyze the following paragraphs. Again, it is said, Am I not as good as others? Why is an attention to religion, an unpopular piety, a rigid virtuve required of me, which cannot le found in the circle of my acquaintance, or in the world at large? Why am I urged to set up as a reformer, or expose myself to the scorn of mankind? But the majority of men are poor. Does this, aowever, check the i rdor of your pursuit of wealth? or do you avoid a new acq isition, because you fear it will ex. nose yon to the envy of yo!ır inferiors ? The majority of

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