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spirits, and conveyed pleasures which exceed the powers of expression. Totally occupied with this new species of existence, I had already forgot the light, though the first par of my being which I had recognized. If the blessings of our political and social condition have not now been too highly estimated, we cannot well overrate the responsibilities which they impose upon us.

We hold these institutions of government, religion, and learning, to be transmitted (210) as well as enjoyed. I deem it my duty, on this occasion, to suggest, that the land is not yet wholly free from the contamination of a traffic at which every feeling of humanity must revolt.

SECTION VIl.

COMPOUND ELEMENTS OF TIIE THIRD CLASS.

336. Although the clauses we have been considering are subordinate to some part of the principal clause, yet two or more of them may become coördinate with each other, and thus form a compound element of the third class; as, “I thought that the substance of the fruit had become part of my own, and that I was endowed with the

power of transforming bodies."

337. Either of the principal or of the subordi nate elements, when of the third class, may, like the single word or phrase, lecome cómpound (151.)

EXERCISE 56.

Review the model on page 75, and then analyze the following sentences : -

I soon perceived that I had the power of losing and of recovering them, and that I could, at pleasure, destroy and renew this beautiful part of my existence. That their poetry is almost uniformly mournful, and that their views of nature were dark and dreary, will be allowed by all who admit the authenticity of Ossian.

When riseth Lacedemon's hardihood,
When Thebes Epaminondas rears again,
When Athens' children are with arts endued,
When Grecian mothers shall give birth to men, -

Then thou mayst be restored.
I neither knew what I was, where I was, nor from whence
I came. Why we are thus detained, or why we receive
no intelligence from home, is mysterious.

Amongst that number was an old man, who had fallen an early victim to adversity, and whose days of imprisonment, reckoned by the notches which he had cut on the door of his gloomy cell, expressed the annual circuit of more than fifty suns. Bruyere declares, that we are come into the world too late to produce any thing new; that nature and life are preöccupied ; and that description and sentiment have been long since exhausted. rather suppose, that Nature is unlimited in her operations ihat she has inexhaustible treasures in reserve; that knowl edge will always be progressive ; that there are innumer. able regions of imagination yet unexplored; and that all future generations will continue to make discoveries, of which we have not the least idea.

Write ten sentences, each containing a compound ciement of the hird clas

We may

SECTION VIII.

SEVERAL ELEMENTS OF THE SAM} NAME

338. A complex sentence may be greatly ex. tended by introducing two or more modifying words, phrases, or clauses of the same name not connected with each other. (165.)

(a.) Adverbial clauses, from their variety, afford the greatest opportunity for using different elements of the same name. We may limit the predicate with an adverbial element denoting place, with another denoting time, &c. And each of these may be complex or compound.

EXERCISE 57.

Analyze the following complex sentences, and point out the words, phrases, or clauses, of the same name which are not connected with each other, yet belong to the subject or predicate :

As I darkened the light, he cast his eye toward the win. dow, that he might catch the feeble rays of the moon. When we passed the corners of the streets, we were al. ways salutea oy some beggars who were congregated there If there be, within the extent of our knowledge or influ. ence, any participation in the traffic, let us pledge ourselves here, upon the Rock cf Plymouth, to extirpate and de

stroy it.

Take any twelve of the unlimited propositions in the first five exercises, Chap. I. Sez. II., and expand them us much as possible, by additions to the subject anil predicate.

339. The three classes of clauses, substantive, adjective, and adverbial, have now been explained. They may be thus represented, as they enter into the structure of a sentence :

[blocks in formation]

+ SUB.

PRED. + Obj. Ele. + Adv. Ele Subs. clause. Subs. clause. Subs. clause. Adv. clense

SECTION IX.

ABRIDGED PROPOSITIONS.

340. A complex sentence differs from a simple sentence only in the expanded state of some one or more of its elements. (270, 271, 272.) Hence,

341. A complex sentence may be reduced to a simple one by abridging its subordinate clause; as, “A man who is deceitful, can never be trusted" = A deceitful man can never be trusted."

(a.) The abridged form partakes of the nature of the clause from which it is derived, that is, it is either substantide, adjective, or a.doerbial.

(6.) In abridging a proposition, the change is produced chiefly upon its essential parts, (264,) its subordinate elements being joined to the abridged form without alteration.

342. The general rule for abridging a subordinate clause, is, to remove the connective, and change the predicate to a participle or an infinitive; as, “ When shame is lost, all virtue is lost' =“Shame being lost, all virtue is lost ; " “ We told him that he must leave" = " We told him to leave.

(a.) The connective is retained in certain substantive clauses, when the predicate is in the potential mode, and the subject is the same as that of the principal verb. In such cases, the predi. cate is changed to the infinitive and the subject, dropped by 1 343, (a.); as, “ I knew not what ' should do=what to do.' In like manner, we have, whom to send ; " " where to go ; " when to stop;

how to do it," &c. (b.) A similar change may take place in such adjective clauses as are mentioned in 1 326; as, 6 Give me a knife with which 1 may cut this string - with which to cut this string = to cut this string with.

Note. By changing the predicate to a participle or an infin. itive, the assertion is destroyed; the attribute, either with or without the participle of the copula, (185, Note,) becomes an assumed property (16, a.) or is used substantively.

343. The following are the rules for the subject in an abridged proposition :

(a.) When the subject of the subordinate clause is the same as the subject or object of the principal clause, it is omitted ; as, “I wish that I might go = to go."

(6.) When it is different from the subject or object of the principal clause, it must be retained, and may appear either in the nominative, possessive, or objective case.

(c.) When it is in the nominative case, it is put absolute with the participle. 6. When shame is lost =shame being lost, all virtue is lost."

(d.) When it is in the possessive case, it be comes wholly subordinate to the abridged predicate !sed as a noun; as, “I was not aware that he was grring = of his going.” (185. c:)

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