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lol Adversative clauses are often equivalent to phrases con necta d by with, without notwithstanding, despite of ; as, “ With all ho faults, he is a useful man =Though he has many faults, he is a useful man.”


Analyze the following sentences : Though he was rich, yet for our sakes he became poor. Although the place was unfavorable, nevertheless Cæsar determined io attack the enemy. However careless he might seem, his fortune depended upon the decision. Fee. ble as he was, he devoted the whole day to study. Vigilant As were the watchmen, the robbers made frequent depredations. Whoever may oppose, we shall insist upon the adoption of the plan. He would pull a mote out of his neighbor's eye, while he has a beam in his own.

Write sentences in which the following adjectives with as, shall introduce an adversative clause. Introduce cach by though.

Bold, deficient, strong, poor, thoughtless, silent, bright, warm, faithful, honest, abrupt, wild, sad, joyous, contented. Model. Cold as it was, we were compelled to be out

through the night = Though it was cold, &c. Expand the following Italicized phrases into adversative clauses. (See 328, a.)

With all his faults, I love him. He applied for a sitnation, without a recommendation. Notwithstanding the storm, we commenced our journey. Despite of opposition, he made his way to distinction.

MODEL. Though he has many faults, I love him.

Write a sentence having an adversative cluuse for rach of the connectives, though, although, notwithstanding, however, while, whatever, whoever.


by such

329. By adverbial clauses denoting manner, the predicate of the principal clause may be compared with that of the subordinate, so as to show, Ist, a sorrespondence ; 2d, a consequence; or, 3d, equality or inequality in magnitude.

330. Correspondence is indicated by as, just as, su ... as wher, it relates to a verb or adjective, and

as, and same as, when it relates to a noun; as, “ Speak as you think ; " " These are such books as I have."

(a.) By an ellipsis of an entire proposition, two subordinate connectives come together, the former of which denotes correspondence; as, “ Always act in private as if you were seen by others" =" Always act in private as you would do if you were seen by others.”

331. Clauses denoting consequence, or effect, are introduced by so ... that, when the consequence relates to a verb or adjective, and by such ... that, when it relates to a noun; as,

6. The traveller was so weary that he fell asleep."

(a.) When the consequence relates to a verb, so that should follow it; when it relates to an adjective, so precedes, and that follows it; when it relates to a nour, such or such a precedes, and that follows it.

332. Comparison of equality (232) is indicated by as ... as ; as, “George is as tall as his brother" (is tall.) So is used instead of the first as after not, in clauses denying equality; as, “George is not so tall as his brot .er."

1 a.) Proportionate equality or equality be ween two predicats

which dary in inteneity, is indicated by the ... :he, the .

so much the, with comparatives; as, “The colder it is, the better I feel.”

333. Comparison of inequality is denoted by than, more ... than, less ... than; as, “George is taller than his brother(is tall.)

(a.) Clauses denoting comparison are generally elliptical.

as it

EXERCISE 54. Analyze the following sentences, and tell which denote CORRESPONDENCE,


As a bird that wandereth froin her nest, so is a man that wandereth from his place. As the door turneth


its hinges, so doth the slothful man upon his bed. Will you read so that you can be heard? The robber struck him such a blow that he fell. Happiness is much more equally distributed than some suppose. Is gravity always as wise

appears? The science of mathematics performs more than it promises. Experience is a surer guide than imagination. Is it not better to be laughed at than ruined ? Moses built the tabernacle, as he was commanded. Do as your parents bid you. Can you paint the picture as she dors ? Our lesson is the same as that we had yesterday. The more eminent men are, (332, a.) so much the more condescending they should be to the humble. The more prudent one is, the more cautious he is. Many men live us though (330, a.) they were born to pleasures.

Write clauses denoting correspondence, to complete the following:

As a man thinketh ...... Will : nu be so good The pupil wrote the copy just as

The boy sings as The task is the same as ... Speak as Make the mark just as

Write clauses denoting consequence or effect lo complete the following : The day was so stormy ...... The sun is so brighi

The patient had gained so much strength..... The hours seemed so long ...... They gave him so little money ...... We should acquire knowledge, so that..... It is so cold...... We have had so much rain ......

IVrite clauses dcnoting comparison of equality applied to the following adjectives :

Wise, great, stupid, long, broad, fierce, cool, strong, weak, thin, bright, dark, faithful.

MODEL. Was Lycurgus as wise as Solon ? Write clauses denoting comparison of inequality applied to the same. Movel. Solon was wiser than Lycurgus = lycurgus

was not so wise as Solon. 334. It has now been shown that either of the five elements of a sentence may be a single word, a phrase, or a clause. They may be thus repre sented :

Adj. + SUB. :: Pred. + Obj. + Ado. Class 1 1

1 1 Class 2 2 2 2 2 Class 3 3 3 3 3 Complex sentences

2 Simple sentences.



335. With simple elements of the first class, the only cornplex element that can be formed consists

of two or more single words united, (143;) as, “very quickly.” But with the additicn of the phrase, three or four varieties can be formed. (240.) By uniting the three different classes of elements, (single words, phrases, clauscs,) at least nine varieties nay be formed, as will be seen by the following


Complex elements may be formed,

By joining 1 & 1; as, very QUICKLY.

By joining 1 & 2; “ DESIROUS of fame. Class 1. By joining 1 & 3; “ A PLEASURE which I cannor

express. By joining 2 &1; With great sATISFACTION Class II. By joining 2 & 2; IN FEAR of detection.

By joining 2 & 3; FROM Him to whom it is due.

By joining 3 & 1; IF HE comes quickly.* Class III. By joining 3 & 2; WHEN WE WENT to Albany

By joining 3 & 3; AS I CAME where he sat. Note. For an explanation of the table, see 1 240, Note.


Review the models for analysis of complex elements, in Chap. II., and analyze the following examples :

The light, the celestial vault, the verdure of the earth, the transparency of the waters, gave animation to my

* it is generally most convenient, except when minute analysis is required, to consider the subordinate clause, even though limited, as a simple element; as, “Since you have, by your own choice, refused the proposal.The same may be said of the phrase, wher only a limiting word comes between the preposition and its ab ect; as, “ in this plac.?; " 'thri ugh thire volumes.

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