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city. We should acquire knowledge. We slvuld fomu good habits in youth. You should honor your parents. Let us shun the company of the vicious. Inprove you time. Cultivate agreeable manners. Never reveal se. crets. Love your enemies. We should rever narm the feelings of others. We should sympathize with the suffering. MODEL. The tides rise because the moon attracts tho


Conditional Clauscs.

317. A conditional clause is an antecedent to some effect or event, but not necessarily its cause.

318. Conditional clauses are used to limit the principal clause by means of some real or supposed condition; as, If it rains, I shall not go."

319. When the conditional clause denotes something actual, or assumed as actual, the terise form of the verb indicates its true time; as, “ If it rains, raincd, or has rained, I shall not go.”

320. When the conditional clause denotes something supposed or hypothetical, the tense form of the verb does not indicate its true tine.

(a.) The past tense represents present time; the past perfect, past time; and the past of the potential, future time; as, “ I am not going; but if I were going (now), I should ride ;" “ I was not going; but if I had been going (yesterday), I should have told you;

“I shall not go; but if I should go (hereafter), I should walk."

(6.) Sometimes there is an ellipsis of the auxiliary ; as, “If ho thould) come, we will ride into the country."

321. The principal connective of conditional clauses is if. The following, which may be con

sidered as nearly equivalent to if, are also used :unless (if not), though, lest, except, provided that.

322. The verb of the conditional clause is in the subjunctive mode, and may be either of the indicative or potential form, (86;) that of the principal clause is generally either in the indicative future, or in some tense of the potential.

323. Conditional clauses may become principal clauses, by changing the subjunctive to the imperative mode, and using and instead of if; as, " If you will give me an are, I will cut this tree" =“Give me an axe, and I will cut this tree."

(a.) Sometimes the condition is expressed by a question; as, " Is any among you afflicted ? let him pray”="If any (one) among you is afflicted, let him pray.”

(b.) By placing the subject after the verb, or between the auxiliary and the verb, “if" may be omitted ; as, “ Weie he a more mareful man, he would meet with better success."


Analyze the following complex sentences, and parse the connectives :

If a tree loses its leaves before the fruit is ripe, the latter becomes withered. If the bark of a tree is injured, the tree becomes sick, and finally dies. Except ye repent, ye shall all likewise perish. If you will read my story, you can judge for yourself. If you would enjoy health, bathe often. I shall leave to-morrow,



friend arrives. You may return, if you please. Should it rain to-morrow, (323, b.) the lecture will be postponed. Were the cause good, he would not fear the attack of its enemies. Were patrons more disinterested, ingratitude would be more rare

If we

wish to cut glass, we must have recourse to the diamond, Had I acted from personal enmity, I should justly be despised. If there be any thing improper in this address, the singularity of your present situation will excuse it.

Write five of the preceding examples, and change the mode of the conditional clause to the imperative. MODEL. Remove the leaves from a tree before the fruit

is ripe, and the latter becomes withered. Write conditional clauses to limit the following sentences used as principal clauses : We shall


attend school. The moon will be eclipsed. The patient will recover. George will improve. The ice will melt. The plants will not thrive. The stream cannot be crossed. The labor must be performed. Remorse will ensue. He can perform the task. Water will become ice. Fruit will not ripen.

MODEL. We shall go, if it is pleasant. Apply a consequence to the following conditions If

you leave; should he stay ; had I stopped ; were the measure to be adopted; could we ascend the ladder; unless relief come immediately ; if the day should be unpleasant; should the wind blow; except he yield to the proposal ; provided that a sufficient number of men can be obtained ; if the term closes on Saturday.

MODEL. If you leave, no one can supply your place.

Final Clauses.

324. Clauses which denote a purpose, or motive. are called final clauses. They are connected by that, that not, and lest.

(a.) Lest denotes a negative purpose, or the avoidance of an ovil, and is nearly equivalent to that not ; as, “ Take heed lest ye fall=thar ye do not fall.

325. The potential mcde, or subjunctive, potential form, is always emple yed in final clauses, and the imperative or potential is commonly used in the principal clause.

326 An adjective clause, introduced by a preposition, and having its ierb in the potential mode, generally denotes a purpose ; as, “We have no other means by which we may aid him.

(a.) Final clauses are often equivalent to an infinitive; as, Eat that you may

live “ Eat to live." (b.) Final clauses generally relate to some correlative phrase in the principal clause, such as, “ in order," " with the design."


Analyze the following sentences, and parse the corenectives :

I have brought a passage, that you may explain it. He visited the springs, that he might improve his health. I have been the more careful, that I might not be the instrument of his ruin. He sent me a history of Rome, that I might examine it. I opened the door, that I might see who was there. He went to the city, that he might consult an attorney

Write clauses denoting a PURPOSE or MOTIVE to - the following:

We should take exercise. Avoid trees in a thunder. storm Study. Improve your time. Shun bad company. Take heed. Reprove not a sco'ner.

Answer not a fool

according to his folly. (blige your friends. He spened the window. He fled his country.

Change the above clauses denoting purpose to infinitives. (326, a.)

Write sentences in which the following infinitives shall denote purpose, and then change them to clauses :

To see his brother to hear the news; to enjoy the sea. breeze; to write a letter; to educate his children; to take lessons in music; to catch a robber; to sell his furniture : o obtain a situation in the bank.

Write five complex sentences, each contuining an adjective clause denoting purpose. (326.)

Adversative Clauses.

327. Adversative clauses are used when we concede something which stands as a cause or reason opposed to the statement in the principal clause. They are introduced by though, although, notwithstanding, however; as, “ Though he slay me, yet will I trust in him."

(a.) The correlatives of adversative clauses are, yet, still, or nevertheless, placed in the principal clause.

(6.) Whatever, whoever, whichever, and while, often have an adversative signification; as, “ Whatever you may say, sists in doing it.”

328. An adversative clause may be expressed by a comparison of equality; as, “Poor as he was, he contributed more than any other man 'Though he was poor, he contributed more than Any other man."

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