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22. In the formation of a sentence, there must, therefore, be two parts,- that to which the attribute belongs, and the attribute itself; and the at ter must be affirmed of the former.

23. That to which the attribute belongs is called the subject; and the attribute itself, with the word wh ch connects (17) it to the subject, is called the predicate.

EXAMPLES.

Subject.

Predicate.
Birds

are singing.
Bees

are industrious. Georg?

is coming. Victoria 24. It very often happens that the attribute and copula are united in one word.

is queen.

EXAMPLES.

comes.

Subject.

Predicate.
Birds

sing, (are singing.)
George
Winds

blow.
Stars

shine. Note. When the predicate contains the copula and the attribute in one word, it may always be resolved into these two parts, 18, “ Winds blow," " Winds are blowing."

25. The uniting of words, to form a sentence, is called construction or synthesis.

26. The resolving of a sentence into its elements or of any complex element into the parts which compose it, is called analysis.

27. A siriple senter.ce contains but one proposition

28. A complex sentence contains two or more dissimilar propositions.

29. A compound sentence contains two or mor similar propositions.

SECTION 11..

THE PROPOSITIC N. - PRINCIPAL ELEMENTS.

Note. The pupil shculd learn Lesson 1., in the Appea. dix, p. 206, before studying this section.

30 A proposition is the combination of a subject (23) and predicate, and is either a simple sentence, or part of a complex or compound sentence.

31. The subject is that of which something is affirmed.

32. The predicate is that which is affirmed. 33. The subject is commonly a noun or pronoun.

(a.) Other parts of speech may be used as nouns, and there. fore may become the subject; as, “Once is sufficient;" “ Bebind is not before."

(6.) Any word, ased merely as a word, may be the subject, as, “ Is is a verb;" “ Of is a preposition.”

(c.) A syllable or letter may be the subject; as, “ Un 18 a pre fix;” “ A is a yovel."

34. The predicate consists of two parts, - the verb, or copula, (17,) and that which is asserted

* NOTE TO TEACHERS. The pupil should now commence the Appendix. The lessons of the Appendix are made to corre. spund, as nearly as possible, to the sections of Chap. I. Since it is the chief object of this arrangement to bring the principles of etymology into immediate use, as the pupil advances, the lessons of the Appendix should be learn's only as they are referred to, in the body of the work.

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by it, called the attribute ; (15,) as, “Snow is

, white.

It cannot be too strongly in pressed upon the mind of the learner, at this stage of his progress, that the copula is that which gives vitality to language. No sentence can be formed without it. Any number of attributes, oined to a subject with. out it would not form a proposition. The omission of this im portant connective is that which distinguishes the first attempts of children to utter their thoughts ; as, 6 Cake good,” for 6 Cake is good.”

35. When the two parts of the predicate are united in one word, (24,) that word is always a verb; as, “ John writes."

(a.) Verbs which contain the copula and attribute are sometimes called attributive verbs, because the attribute is included in them.

(6.) The verb to be is sometimes an attributive verb; it then denotes existence, and is commonly preceded by there, and fol. lowed by its subject; as, “ There are dolphins," “Dolphins exist."

(c.) Besides the verb to be, there are several others which do not complete the predicate, but take after them some word de. noting a property of the subject; as, “ Beggars are becoming numcrous; "" He is called handsome." These verbs are sometimes called copulative verbs. They are such as become, seem, appear; and the passive forms of deem, style, name, call, consider, and others.

36. Of a subject we may predicate, (a.) What it does ; as, “ Birds fly;"

(6.) What qualities it possesses ; as, “Sugar is sweet ;

(c.) What it is ; as, “Wheat is a vegetable.Of these predicates, (a.) is always a verb; (b.) an adjective ; and (6.) a noun or pronoun.

37. These three parts of speech, - the noun, including the pronoun,) the verb, and the adjec

tive

are most commonly used to form the two principal elements of the sentence.

NOTE. Either of these three parts of speech may alsɔ be used w form the subordinate elemen s of a sentence.

38. A sentence containing only the two principal elements, is said to be unlimited, and is analyzed (26) by pointing out the subject and predicate.

39. Unlimited proposicions should be analyzed according to the following

MODELS FOR ANALYSIS. " Birds flyis a proposition, because it contains a sub

ject and predicate. Birds "

is the subject, because it is that of which the

action (36, a.) “ fly” is affirmed. Fly" .... is the predicate, because it is the action

affirmed of “birds."

Snow is white” is a proposition, because it contains a

subject and predicate. “ Snow" ... is the subject, because it is that of which

the quality (36, 6.) “white" is affirmed. " Is white".. is the predicate, because it is the quality

affirmed of " snow.” Is” is the verb or copula, and "white" is the attribute.

Gold is a metalis a proposition, because it ccntains

a subject and predicate. "Gold" is the subject, because it is that of which the

class * (36, c.) metal is affirmed.

• When the predicate is a noun, it commonly denotes to what genus, species, or class, the subiect be ongs. Sometimes it de notes identity; as, “ It is James ;" I am he.'

'Is a metal” . is the predicati», because it denotes the class

which is affirmed of “gold.” “Is " is the verb, and “metal,” the attribute.

EXERCISE 2.

Analyze the following propositions, according to the models :

Brutus determined. George was conscious. Stars shine. Writers differ. Trees are plants. Virtue ennobles. Wisdom directs. Cæsar conquered. Kings reign. Rich ard was bold. Nero was cruel. Socrates was a philosopher. Night comes. Exercise strengthens. Serpents crawl. Winds blow. Eagles soar. Historians write. Boys play. Geography is interesting.

EXERCISE 3.*

Predicate action (36, a.) of the following subjects :

Horses, water, eagles, whales, quadrupeds, Columbus, Washington, father, mother, insects, wind, stars, children fire, rain, leaves, grass, time, robbers, armies, moon George, kings wasps, acorns.

Model. Horses run. Water flows. Predicate QUALITY (36, 5.) of the following

nouns :

Life, peaches, ice, play, arithmetic, cloth, chairs, money, nealth, intemperance, history, darkness, morning, wisdom,

The pupil should write these and similar examples upon a siate or paper, drawing a line under the "llustrative word, and placing a period ( - ) at the end of each p oposition. The first word in each sentence should commence with a capital. The exercises, after being corrected, should be copied into a writing book

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