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Where'er we tread, 'tis haunted, hoy ground. Where true religion has prevented one crime, false religions have afforried a pretext for a thousand. Where all is merce. Lary, nothing can be magnanimous. Thou knewest that I rap where I sowed not! Whither 1 go, ye cannot come I travelled where disappointment smiles at hope's career Where there is no law, there is no transgression.

Where the olive leaves were twinkling in every wind that blew,

There sat beneath the pleasant shade a dan.sel of Peru. Let me alone, that I may take comfort a little before I go whence I shall not return.

Write ten sentences, introducing an adverbial clause denoting place.

II. - CLAUSES DENOTING TIME.

310. Adverbial clauses denoting time are connected with their principal clauses by conjunctiv adveros of time.

311. These adverbial clauses, like adverbs, or adverbial phrases of time, answer the questions, When? How long? How often?

(a.) The last of these relations (How often?) is generally ex. pressed by comparison. “I will go as often as you send for me."

312. Adverbial clauses denoting time, like phrases, mark a specified time, (79, a.) antecedent to, simultaneous with, or subsequent to, the event expressed by the principal verb.

EXAMPLE

Edward was writing

before the mail arrived.
when the mail arrived.
after the mail arrived.

NUTE. see table, 1 79, (c.) and form a similar one, in which an Hilverbial co luse shall mark the specified time.

313. Clauses like phrases, may denute a point, & period, or fre quency, of time.

(a.) The principal conjunctive adverbs denoting time are, when, while, whilst, as, before, after, ere, till, until, since, when. ever ; and the phrases, as long as, as soon as, the moment, the instani, no sooner ...than.

(b.) The following table will show the different relations of these connectives:

Point ...

when, as, whenever, as

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(c.) While, whilst, and as long as, denote the duration, till and until, the commencement, and since, the termination, of a period.

(d.) In clauses denoting time, there is often an elipsis of the subject and verb; as, “ When reflecting with grief and astopish ment upon this great change, I felt a degree of pain."

EXERCISE 49.

Analyze the following sentences, and parse he connectives :

A dervise was journeying alone in the desert, when iwo

Frequency can apply to the prese:t only when it denotes a customary act; as, “ I visit the city as often as twice a year' iBee note, p. 106.;

merchants suddenly met him. When the million applaud you, seriously ask yourself what harm you have done Wher you have nothing to siy, say nothing. Cromwell followed little events, befcre he ventured to gov. crn great ones. The

age of miracles is past, while that of prejudice remains. When articles rise, the consumer is the first that suffers. At length, the dial instituted a formal inquiry as to the cause of the stagnation, when hanus, wheels, weights, with one voice, protested their in

nocence.

And all the muse's tales seem truly told,

Till the sense aches with gazing. The moment the boat touched the shore, he was on “ terra firma.” As we were walking together, we met a stranger. i have not visited the city since we dissolved our partner. ship. As soon as we came in sight, the birds were fright. ened froin the tree. I will remain until you return.

Write twelve complex sentences, introducing the subordinate clauses, by the connectives mentioned in 1313, (a.)

Write appropriate clauses, denoting time, to each of the following sentences :

I saw the smouldering ruins. We heard a distant cry. Will you answer my letter? The child may attend school. Migratory birds return to the north. You may play. How old were you? We should aid our friends.

Write five complex INTERROGATIVE sentences, und let the dependent clause denote time.

III

CLAUSES DENOTING CAUSAL RELATIONS.

314. These subordinate c auses may be considered under four divisions :

(a.) Causal, or those which deno‘e a ca. use of reason ;

(6.) CONDITIONAL, — or those which denote a condition ;

(c.) FINAL, --- orthose which denote a purpose ; -

2.) ADVERSATIVE, - ir those which denote a cause or reason conceded, as opposed to a result.

Clauses which denote a Cause or Reason.

315. There are two modes of representing the relation of causal clauses :

(a.) When the conclusion or inference is stated, and sustained by some cause or reason, the latter clause is called causal, and is connected with the principal clause by because, for, as, whereas, since, and inasmuch as ; as, “It must have rained last night, for the ground is wet.

(6.) When the cause or reason is stated in an independent proposition, and a conclusion or inference is deduced from it, the latter clause is called deductive or illative, and is commonly connected with the preceding by a coördinate conjunction, to show its grammatical relation, and by therefore, wherefore, hence, whence, consequently, or then, to show its logical or causal relation; as, “ The coun. ry is infested with wolves, and therefore the heepfolds should be secured.

Note. The coördinate con unction is often omitted; as “ The future is uncertain ; there ore emp!oy the present wisely These ciauses will be more fully consic ered in the chapter ou coördinate clauses.

316. Deductive clauses inay be changed to eausal, or causal to deductive, by reversing the order of statement; as, “ The sheepfolds should be secured, for the country is infested with wolves" = “ The country is infested with wolves; therefore the sheepfolds should be secured.”

(a.) Therefore is properly the correlative of the subordinate connectives because, for, &c.

EXERCISE 50.

Analyze the following sentences, and point out the causal lauses :

A peace which consults the good of both parties, is the firmest, because both parties are interested in its preservation. We hate some persons, because we do not know them. As retreat was now impossible, Colter turned the head of the canoe. People are happy because they are good. Ye reccive me not, because ye know him not. Since you have been intrusted with such treasures, you ought to practise the utmost vigilance. Because the wicked do not receive their just deserts immediately, they grow bold in transgression.

Write causal clauses to each one of the connectives, because, for, as, since, whereas, inasmuch as.

Change all the above examples to deductive clauses. (See 316.)

Take the corresponding exercise (p. 107) in Chapter II., and change all the phrases which admit of it into causal clauses.

Write clauses which shall give a reason for tho following statements :

The tides rise. The moon is eclipsed. We left the

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