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“ who f.nds not satisfaction in him. self,” an adjective element of the

third class, describing“ man,”(103.) The complex subject. . 18 “A man who finds not satisfac

tion in himself.” The predicate is limited by " for it,” “ in vain,"

and “ elsewhere.” (Give the name

and class of each.) The complex predicate is “ seeks for it in vain elsewhere." Who

is the subject of the adjective clause. Finds ...

is the predicate. The predicate is limited, first, by “not;

ondly, by“ satisfaction;" and thirdly, by “in himself.” (Give

the name and class of each.) Who ....

is a relative pronoun, of the third person, singular number, masculine gender, according to Rule XVII. ; is the subject of the proposition" who finds," &c., according to Rule I., and connects this proposition with “man," the subject of the principal clause, according to Rule XVI.



Analyze the following examples, and parse the relutive

pronouns : The rewards which are promised, shall be given. Can. Der the man who is faithfully attached to religion be relied on with confidence ? He whom I loved is dead. Will not those who raise envy incur censure? The globe on which we live, is but a planet. Xerxes, upon whom For tune had luvished all her favırs, proposed a reward to the inventor of a new pleasure. Whatever violates nature cannot be innocent. Whoever forgets a benefit, is ar enemy to society. Will not he whose desires are bound less, always be restless? The assumption that our cause is declining, is utterly gratuitous. The opinion that chil. dren may grow up as they please, seems to prevail. The reason why he left his mother in such peril, has never been satisfactorily given.

Write twenty sentences, limiting the subject of each by an adjective clause. In five, let the relative be the subject of its clause; in five, let it be the adjective element ; in five, the objective element ; and in five, let it be an adverbial element. Let ten of the sentences be interrogative.

Reduce the adjective clauses in the first part of this exercise to simple or complex elements of the first or second class.

MODEL. The promised rewards shall be given. Convert the following simple sentences into complex sentences, by expanding the Italicized adjective elements into clauses :

The pride of wealth is contemptible. The well-bred man desires only to please. Reproof given in public hardens the heart. Milton the poet was blind. The sun, vicege. rent of his power, shall rend the veil of parting night. A cottage shaded with trees is a pleasant object. The hut. terfly, child of the summer,

flutters in the sun. Cæsar, the enslaver of his country, was stabbed in the senate-house. The house of my father stands near the road. My brother's dog was killed.

Model. The pride which mealth begets is contemptiblo

Change them to interrogative sentences.
Müvel. Is not the pride which wealth begets con-

temptible? Write complex sentences to the following compound subjects, limiting each by an adjective clause The boy or the girl. The sun and moon.

James or John. The fox and the geese. Not the servant, but the master. Susan, and not the sister. Neither the man nor the woman. Those books or slates. This boy or his parents. Some insect or reptile. Those trees or shrubs. MODEL. The boy or the girl who painted this picture

deserves much praise.




295. When a clause is used to complete the meaning of a transitive verb, it is an objective element of the third class ; as, “I perceive that you have or dered a supply."


296. Substantive clauses in the objective, gen. erally follow verbs denoting, 1st. Some act or state of the mind (as perception, emotion, or will ;) – 2d. A declaration, order, or statement; as, " I wish that yor' would assist me;" " The farmer declared

that his watch had gainci half an hour in the night.”

(a.) The following are some of the verbs of the first class : see, hear, feel, know, think perceive, wish, anticipate, pray, entreat, desire, imagine, suppose, expect, hope, fear, suspect, understand, &c. The following are of the second :- say, declare, tell, an. nounce, relate, assert, affirm, proclaim, report, state, notify, show, reply, answer, respond, foretell, deny, order, command, direct.

297. Substantive clauses may follow adjectives. and even nouns, derived from these verbs ; as, 51 am desirous that you should visit the country;" “A wish that you might participate in our joy, has led me to make you this offer.

Note. For the classes of substantive clauses, and their con nectives, see 11 274, 276.

298. To objective clauses properly belong the forms of language ca.jed

Direct and Indirect Quotation.


299. When we quote the language of another, we may either represent him as uttering his own words, or we may narrate them for him; as, "He

I will do it'" =" He said that he would do it." The former is called direct, and tle latter indirect, quotation.

(a.) In direct quotation, the quotation marks (" ") should be nued. In indirect quotation, the connective that should intro duce t'ne quotation, (unless it be a question.) The person of the subject, the mode and tense of the verb, and the arrangement of the parts, should be changed, if necessary. (See example above.)

(6.) Instead of a single clause, sometimes whole pages are quoted as the object of a transitive verb.

ic.) Direct quotation approaches much nearer to a coördinate rank with the principal clause, than indirect. The subordinate connective that is never used; and when the quoted language is a question, the interrogation point should always be employed.

(d) Both direct and indirect quotation, instead of being the object of a verb, may often be put in apposition with some noun ; 08, “ The question how we shall do it, has never been asked “ “ The question, · How shall we do it?'" has never been asked.

300. The principal clause is often thrown in between the parts of a direct quotation; as, “ For all that,' said the pendulum, 'it is very dark here.'

301. The quotation often becomes the principal clause, and the principal is made a subordinateadverbial clause, introduced by as to denote the authority on which the quoted assertion is made; as, “He left, as he told me, before the arrival of the steamer.” · Note. Such subordinate clauses are nearly allied to modal ad verbs. In such constructions, thè quotation marks are not to be used.

302. Direct quotation can be changed to indirect, by removing the quotation marks, inserting a connective, and making the requisite changes of person, mode, tense, and arrangement. (1 299, a.)

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303. Besides an objective clause, certain verbs take an indirect object, either with or without a preposition; as, “We told him that he was in dan

“ He intimated to me that my services would soon be needed."

(a) It will be seen that a single objective clause is equivalent to two objects like those mentioned in 1 120 and 230. Tiba

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