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269. Subordinate clauses are divided, according to their nature and use, into substantive, adjective and adverbial. (176, 188.)

270. A substantive clause is a substantive or an infinitive expanded into a proposition; as, “Steal ing is base”


" To steal is base"

" That one should steal is base."

271. An adjective clause is an adjective, participie, or adjective phrase, expanded into a proposition; as, “A generous man=a man of generosity man who is generous, will be honored.”

272. An adverbial clause is an adverb, or advera bial phrase, expanded into a proposition; as, “ The ship sailed early=before sunrise = before the sun rose."

= a

III.

USES OF THE SUBSTANTIVE CLAUSE.

273. The substantive clause, like the substantive, (176,) may become the subject, attribute, or object, of a sentence.

274. Substantive clauses are of two kinds, those which contain a statement, and those which contain an inquiry.

275. Those which contain a statemert, are introduced by that, that not, and sometimes but, or but that; as, That you have wronged me, doth

appear in this."

276. Clauses which contain an inquiry are introduced by the several interrogatives. ( 258, a.)

277. In the use of interrogative clauses in a complex sentence, there are two cases:

(a.) The interrogative may be ihe principa

clause. The sentence is then a complex interroga tive sentence; as, “Do you kr.ow that your sister has returned ?

(h.) The interrogative may be the subordinate clause. The sentence is then a complex declarative sentence; as, “ Your father inquired, when I had heard from Madras."

278. When the principal clause is interrogative, the interrogation point should always be placed at the end of the sentence; but when the subordinate clause is interrogative, the period should be placed at the end of the sentence, except when the subordinate clause is a direct quotation. (See 299.)

(a.) When an interrogative sentence is made subordinate, and becomes an organic part of another sentence, it loses, in a meas ure, its interrogative character; unless quoted (299) directly. There is often a change of person, and generally a change of arrangement; as, “How did you obtain the situation?” “ He asked me how I obtained the situation."

(b.) The interrogative becomes the connective to the subordinate clause. Hence, when interrogative pronouns are used as connectives, they should be carefully distinguished from relative pronouns, which are used as the connectives of adjective clauses. Compare “ I know not who did it," with “I know not the map who did it."

SECTION II.

BUBORDINATE CLAUSES USED AS PRINCIPAL

ELEMENTS.

279. When a subordinate clause is used as the ubject or predicate of a complex sentence, it be coines a principal element of the third class.

280. The substantive clause only can be used As a principal element.

1. — THE SUBSTANTIVE CLAUSE AS SUBJECT.

281. The substantive clause, like the substantive or substantive phrase, may become the subject of a sentence; as,

« That the earth revolves on its aris, has been clearly proved."

282. By the idiom mentioned in 1 196, the substantive clause, as subject, is first represented by it standing at the head of the sentence, and is itself placed after the predicate; as, “ It has been clearly proved that the earth revolves on its acis."

MODELS FOR ANALYSIS AND PARSING.

Who was the author of Junius's Letters, has never

been satisfactorily determined. li is a complex sentence, because it contains a principal

and a subordinate clause. Who was the author of Junius's Letters, is the subject of

the principal clause. Has been determined is the predicate. The pradirate ..... is limited by • satisfactorily,” an ad

verbial element of the first class, de

noting manner. Who was the author, &c., is a principal element of the third

class. It is used as a noun third person, singular number, neuter gender, nominative case, and is the subject of the sentence; according to Rule 1.

.

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\Vho...

is the subject of the subordinate

clause, and Was author. is the predicate. Author

is limited first by “the," and second

ly by " of Junius's Letters." Who.

is an interrogative pronoun, used in a subordinate clause. It has no ante. cedent. It is of the third perscn, singular number, masculine gender, nominative case, and is the subject of

was ;” according to rule IV. It connects the two dissimilar clauses,

according to Rule XVI. Note. " Who was author" may be considered as the gram. matical subject of the complex sentence, and “ Who was the au thor of Junius's Letters," the logical subject. The connection of who will be best seen by using the idiom in 1 282.

EXERCISE 44.

Analyze the following complex sentences according to the model:

That the earth is a sphere, is easily proved. That honor and fame are the offspring of labor, is the eternal law of nature. That sorrow robed the happy home in mourning, was enough. That no man is justified by the law in the sight of God, is evident. Whether the truth will be made to appear, is uncertain. That a peculiar insensibility exists to the obligations of the parental and filial relation, is too evident to need any extended illustration. That children may grow up as they please, seems to be the prevalent opinion. Where the robber concealed his stolen treasures, has never been ascertained. When letters were first used, is not certain. Why he resigned his office, will soon be made known. How he made f's escape, is a mystery

From what place he came,cannot be ascertained. In whal manner he did it, is wholly unknown. Who

gave

the in formation, has been ascertained. Will he do it? is the question.

Write the above sentences, and introduce each by " it." MODEL. It is the eternal law of nature, that honor and

fame are the offspring of labor. Write substantive clauses to complete the following ; und then change them so as to place the subject before the predicate, dispensing with "it:

It is evident. It is uncertain. It appears. It has been ascertained. It is mysterious. It is well known. It wili be shown. It is true. It is probable. It was denied by none. Model. It is evident that the bill will be defeated =

That the bill will be defeated, is evident. Expand the following SUBSTANTIVES and INFINITIVES, with the words joined to them in Italics, into substantive clauses used as subjects : To swear is impious. To err is human.

The utility of the telegraph is acknowledged. The name of the swimmer is not known. Your abuse of my brother is reprehensible. The place of his concealment has not been de. termined. The time of the boat's arrival was well known. for him to eat unripe fruit was presumption. The cause, of his delay is unknown. The immortality of the soul is "universally believed. The paleness of the ink is apparent The authenticity of the Scriptures has been clearly proved. MODEL. That one should swear, is impious. That the telegraph is useful, is acknowledged.

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