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244. There may be in the second, as in the first class, several elements of the same name, not connected with each other.. (See 165.)

(a.) Such elements are always subordinate, and are generally either adjective or adverbial.

245. By means of the several conditions of the elements already explained, a simple sentence may be extended at pleasure.

EXERCISE 40. An orator may often, by this kind of style, gain grea admiration, without being nearer to his proper end. The unfortunate man passed from one subject to another, without being aware of the abruptness of his transitions. The coach will leave the city in the morning before sunrise. Recounting the dark catalogue of abuses already suffered, and appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of their intentions, they shook off forever their allegiance to the British crown, and pronounced the United Colonies an independent nation. The boat will sail from Norwich to New York on Thursday.

246. It will be readily perceived that the materials employed in this chapter resemble, in their use, those of Chapter I. 1. The substantide phrase, (the

1. Subject;
2. Attribute;

s 1. Predicate, inf.) used as

} 3 Object.

2. Modifier;

1. Predicate II. The adjective phrase, used as ... Attribute,

2. Modifier; III. The adverbial whrase, used as


There are,

247. These materials, arranged in a formula,
stand thus :

s Infinitive,

Infin. Adv. Phrase
Adj. Phrase.

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Adj. Phrase,} Infin.

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King James wrote a treatise on the heinous sin of using obacco. The ancients, for want of telescopes, formed many absurd notions of the heavenly bodies. The sun, according to some ancient philosophers, quenches his flames in the ocean. Alfred the Great was not only the king, but the father, of his people. I speak not of temporal, but of eternal interests. No one ought, unnecessarily to wound the feelings, or insult the religious prepossessions, of his neighbors. We have taken up arms, not to betray, but to defend, our country. Study serves for de light, for ornament, and for ability. To attempt to work upon the vulgar with fine sense, is like attempting to hew blocks of marble with a razor. One of the noblest of the Christian virtues is, to love our enemies. Sincerity and truth form the basis of every virtue. The man of genuine virtue must be endowed with a sagacious judgment and ar ardent zeal.

Write ten sentences, each containing complex of compound elements.

Complete the following sentences :

He was formed (For what?). - - The writings (Of whom ?) were studied (By whom?) (When?) (Where ? (Why?). - (What kind ?) poet (of what place ?) de scribes (What?) (How?).

Write sentences containing the followireg words Let all the words between the semicolons be introduced into a single sentence.

Honey, bee, flower; farmer, grain, ploughs ; ship, sailor, ong, mast; lapidary, ring, diamond, gold; skeleton, mus. cles, nerves; inertia, force, momentum ; equation, termo, quantity ; history, chronology, era, dates ; conscience, judginent, intellect.




saw John.

248. An interrogative sentence is used to ask a question; as, " Whom did you see?A sentence lised to state a fact, or the possibility of a fact, is called a declarative sentence; as, “I saw George;" “ You can see George."

249. An interrogative sentence relates either to the whole or a part of a corresponding declarativa sentence, called the

or responsive; as, “ Whoni did you see ? Ans. John ; " that is, “I

“ Did you see John ? Ans. Yes=1 did see John."

(a.) The first question refers to only a part of the declarative sentence, namely, the object of the verb; but the second refera to the whole, and may be answered by “yes” or “no,” which ure equivalent to the entire sentence,- the former without tha negative “not,” the latter with it

250. A question which refers to the who.e of the corresponding declarative sentence, is called direct; one which refers to only a single part of it, is called indirect



251. A direct interrogative sentence requires an affirmation or denial, and is introduced by the verb or its auriliary; as, “Have you seen George? Yes = I have seen George."

(a.) Direct questions require, at the close, the upwara inieo. tion of the voice in uttering them: as, “Will you go'?"


Have you written ? It is an interrogative sentence, because it asks a ques

tion; simple, because it contains but one proposition direct, because it requires an affirmation or denial. You ...

is the subject. Hlave written .. is the predicate. Note. The elements of an interrogative sentence are in all respects like those of a declarative.


Have you

Analyze the following sentences : Are you here? Is


brother well ? returned ? Did Cain ki'l Abel? Is your master at home? Will

you ride to town to-day? Should not merchants bo punctual in paying their debts? Do you think him so base? Have you learned the lesson? May the children visit the country to-morrow? Had the paient rocovered on your arrival? May we not sit under this tree? Must I leave town to-morrow? Does the bright sun grow dim in tho heavens ? Am I ny brother's keeper? Are you going to see the elephant ? Shall send the letter to the office ? Did you kill the Nemæan l on?

Write fifteen direct interrogative sentences, and be çareful to place after each an interrogation point, (?)

Convert the questions in the first part of this ever rise into declarative sentences. Place a period (.) at the end of each

MODEL. You are here. Your brother is weil.


252. An indirect interrogative sentence requires, is its answer, that part of the declarative sentence to which the question relates, and is always intro duced by some interrogative word; as, “Who came? Charles = Charles can.e." Note. Study the lesson in the Appendix on interrogatives.

253. An indirect question may refer to either of the five elements of a declarative sentence. (a.) Connectives are not referred to by interrogatives.

254. Since the essential materials (176) of a sentence are of the nature of the substantive, adjective, or adverb, we have, to inquire for them, three kinds of interrogative words,

(a.) Interrogative pronouns, which inquire for a substantive; as, Who? Which? What ?

(6.) Interrogative adjectives, which inquire for au adjective; as, What or Which (person or thing :) How many? What kind ?

(c.) Interrogative adverbs, which 'nquire for some

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