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phrase is “by actions.”

66 Actions” is limited by “ generous," a simple adjective element of the first class, showing what kind of actions.

Note. In these examples, the basis of each complex eiement in itself an element of the second class, and the phrase is formed by joining classes 2 + 1. (147.)



The excessive labor undergone in preparing for his

examination, occasioned a dangerous illness. It is a simple sentence, because it contains but one

proposition. Labor

is the subject, and Occasioned ..... is the predicate. The subject, labor, is limited by “the” and “excessive,

both simple adjective elements of the
first class. It is also limited by
dergone in preparing for his exam.
ination,” a complex adjective element
of the first class, (147, 153,) used to do.
note the occasion or circumstance of the
labor. “Undergone" is the basis. It
is an adjective element of the first class,
and belongs to “ labor.” (Rule V.) It
is limited by “ in preparing for his ex-
amination," a complex adverbial ele- .
ment of the second class, denoting how
the labor was urdergone.
ing" is the basis. “Preparing" is
limited by “for his examination,” a
complex adverbial element of the
second class, showing for what, or why
he was preparing. The basis is, “ fol
examination." · Examination" is lim.

- In prepar. ited by “his," a simple adjective element of the first class, showing whose examination. The simple elements of this combination may be thus repre

sented:-1+2 +2 + 1. The pred., occasioned, is limited by "a dangerous illness"

a complex objective element of the first class, denoting what the labor occa. sioned. Illness," the basis, is the object of “occasioned,” (Rule VIII.) and is limited by “a” and “ dangerous," both simple adjective elements of the first class. (103.)

EXERCISE 38 Analyze the following sentences, and separate each complex element into its component parts, according to he model:

The Spartan youth were accustomed to go barefoot. Many a despicable wretch lies under a marble monument, decorated with a flattering epitaph. Italy is a large penin. sula, bounded on the north by the Alps. The king returned in the gleam of his arms. The chiefs gathered round the falling Carthon. His words reached the heart of Clessàmmor. After the denial of the charge, he withdrew in dignified displeasure. The prayers of David, the son of Jesse, are ended. Suddenly the sound of the signal.gun broke the stillness of the night. The same is brie of literary men.

Write sentences, limiting the subject of each by a complex adjective element, which shall have for its basis one of the follo'wing participles or adj :ctives placed at the head of the sentence :

Gliding, eager, feeding, anxious, desirous, floating, con. scious, encircled, enriched, regardless, flying, searching, waiting, opening, commencing, wading, poring, finding, aware, awake, ambit ous, indignant, robed, detained, amazed, confused. MODEL. Gliding along the edge of the horizon,* a dis

tant sail sometimes attracted our attention. Euger to

attain to the highest rank, he labored incessantly. Write complex elements based on the following nouns or infinitives used as objects, and introduce them into sentences of your own :

Laws, congress, constitution, county, work, discourse, fable, dialogue, catalogue, inventory, league, truce, country, labor; to study; to invite; to leave; to stay ; to sing; to have run.

MODEL. The Romans examined the laws of Solon.

Add simple or complex elements, either of the first or second class, or both, to the following phrases used as adverbial elements :

In honor; on returning; by searching; in the capital; through the air; on opening; to view, (inf. of purpose, 226;) to solicit; to invite ; over hills; under the wall; in search, into the town; for stealing ; of his breaking; of her being sick; of his being a scholar. MODEL. Cne hundred guns were fired in honor of the

victory gained by the Americans over the British.

Write six sentences, introducing either a complex adjective, objective or adverbial element, containing the following combinations of simple elements :

* Place a corima at the end of the pł: «e, especially if it in


2+.+2. 2 +2 +1. 2+2+1+2. 1+2 +1. 1+2+2. 2+2+1+2+1 (See model, n. 114.) MODEL. He was saved by ropes ... thrown .. from the




241. Cimpound elements of the second class, like those of the first, are formed by uniting two or more similar simple or complex elements of the second class; as, “To read and to write are profitahle."

Note. For connectives, see T 157, (a. b. c.)

(a.) It should be borne in mind, that a simple element of the second class has a connective (179) of its own, which unites it subordinately to some preceding word. Besides this, the parts of a compound element of the second class are united to each other by one of the coördinate conjunctions.

(b.) The essential point of similarity is the rank which the elements sustain to each other. They must be equal in rank. (See 150, a.)

242. The component parts of a compound ele. ment should be of the same class, that is, buth of the first or both of the second.

Note. To this rule there may be a few exceptions ; as, “ The pupil performed his task promptly and with care; better, W promptly and carefully,or “ with promptness and with ca::e.'

243. Compound e.cments may be formed by uniting.

(a.) Two or more principal elements ; as, “ For me to labor, and for you to be rdle, would be unmist;” “The lad was without money and uithout friends" =" Penniless and friendless ;.

(6.) Two cr more subordinate elements ; as, “ T'he islands of Cuba and [of] Hayti belong to the West Ir dies; “ The boy learned to read and write ; “ You may pass through the house and garden." *

Note. See models for analyzing compound elements, Chap

ter I.


A stream of name and smoke issued from the chimney The hearts of the brothers were not divided during the peace and the troubles of this life. The obligation of respect and love for parents never ceases. Hampden placed himself at the head of his countrymen, and across the path of tyranny. To be or not to be, is the question. Sarah loves to sing and dance. They were stationed there to defend the fort, and to awe the citizens.

Write ten sentences, introducing into them a compound element of the second class. Let the first five be connected by " and ;the next three be connected by " but;" and the remainder, by oror “nor."

Write sentences uniting the words between the semicolons into a compound adjective or adverbial element of the second class.

Robber, murderer; truth, humanity; zeal, energy; Eng land, America ; Europe, Asia; hope, 'fear; day, night. MODEL. The name of the robber and murderer has

been ascertained.

* The preposition is general, omitted by ellipsis in the second phrase.

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