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i. Language is the medium through which we communicate our thoughts.

2. Discourse is a continued series of thoughts, each expressed by an assemblage of words called a sentence.

3. A series of sentences relating to the same subject, or the same branch of the subject, is called a prragraph.

4. A sentence may be considered as a whole, or in reference to its component parts.

5. The component parts of a sentence are the words, phrases, and clauses which enter into its structure.

6. A sentence, considered as a whole, either declares something, asks a question, expresses a com mand, or contains an exclamation.

The following are examples of each kind of sentence : - Declarative. “ There are certain social principles in human nature, from which we may draw the most solid conclusions with respect to the conduct of individuals and communities." — Interrogative. 66 When was it that Rome attracted most strong.y the admiration of mankind, and impressed the deepest sentiment of fear on the hearts of her enemies?” — Imperative. 6. Sbut now the voluine of history, and tell me, on any principle of human probability, what shall be the fate of this handful of adventurers." Exclamatory. “ How different would have been our los this day, both as men and women, had the Revolutica failed of success!

7. The component parts of a sentence are called its elements.

8. A sentence may contain five distinct elements. Of these, two are indispensable to its formation, and are hencc called PRINCIPAL ELEMENTS. The other three are dependent on these, and are hence called SUBORDINATE ELEMENTS.

9. Each of these five elements may take three distinct forms, called the first, second, and third, classes of the elements.






10. An element of the first class is a single word, used as a constituent part of a sentence.

11. A word is the sign of an idea. (a.) An idea 18 a mental picture or conception of an object, either inaterial or immaterial, and may be represented singly; as, tres, rider, horse; or as associated with some other idea ; as, tall tr66, deep rider, wild horse. In the first examples, tree, rider, horse, represent single ideas of the objects which they name; but in the second, the ideas represented by tall, deep, and wild, are associated with them.

(6.) Some words are used merely as signs of the relation of ideas (see 14, b.); as, “ Bingdom of Great Britain.”

12. Connected ideas require a corresponding connection of the words which represent them; as faithful man, house of representatives.

The words faithful and man are connected so as to show a relation between the two ideas which they represent. So also are house and representatives.

13. In connecting words, we must attend both to the mode and the nature of their union.

14. THE MODE OF UNION. Words may be united in two ways :

(a.) By joining them immediately, that is, without a connective; — first, without change of form ; as, good food, summer residence, very quickly ; second, with the form of one or both the united words changed; as, "Arabia-n horses ; " " Abraham-'s tent;" "Thou sit-test ;"

(b.) By using a connective to dencte the relation between them; as, "Horses from Arabia ; " " The tent of Abraham ;” “Thou art sitting." 'This mode of union is sometimes called mediate.

15. THE NATURE OF THE UNION. We naturale ly distinguish objects by means of some of their properties ; as, heir color, -- black, white, red, blue;

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their form, - long, short, wide, deep; their actions.

running, Aying, swimming, crawling; their genus or species, - animal, bird, fish, serpent. These properties are called attributes.

16. An attribute may be united to its object,

(a.) By assuming a union, or by joining it without an assertion; as, blue sky, rough sea, poisonous rep

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tiles ;


(6.) By affirming a union, or by joining it with n assertion; as, “ The sky is blue;" “ The sea

rough ;" "Reptiles are poisonous."

In either case, the attribute is united to the object. In the former, the fact that the property belongs to the object is only implied, conceded, or taken for granted; whereas, in the latter, the same is affirmed, declared, or predicated. In the first case, the attribute is joined immediately to its object; in the second, it is joined to it, and asserted of it, by a peculiar connective called the copula.

17. The copula is some modification (is, are, was, &c.) of the verb to be. Its office is, to assert an attribute of the thing to which it belongs.

18. The distinction between assuming and predicating an attribute, is of great importance in the construction of language; and, that the learner may become familiar with it at the outset, let him attend to the following exercise :


Tell which of the following expressions contain an usumed, and which a predicated property :

Sweet sfples. Running water. Ice is melting. Shinthe world, George is well. Fading flowers. Stars are

Sour grapes.

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Snow is falling.

The wind is biowing Fire is burning. John is a carpenter. Singing birds. Open doors. Barren fields. Hissing serpents. A long journey. Hope is deferred.

Change each of the above expressions, by predicating the assumed, and assuming the predicated properties. MODEL.* “ Apples are sweet; « Water is running;

• Melting ice.” Mention three or more properties of each of the following objects :

Gold, horses, books, iron, ocean, whales, edifice, peaches, dogs, man, king, moon water, ink, oil, lamp, table, money, pens.

Unite them first as assumed and then as predicateu properties. MODEL. Heavy gold; precious gold; yellow gold; po

rous gold. MODEL. Gold is heavy; gold is precious ; gold is yel.

low ; gold is porous. 19. When an attribute is predicated of an object, the united ideas constitute a thought, and the form of expression is called a sentence, (from the Latin word sententia, a thought.) Hence,

20. A sentence is a thought expressed in words.

21. When an attribute is assumed of an object, no thought is expressed, but simply two ideas are associated. (11, a.)

* These exercises may be written or recited orally. It is recommended that the practice of wating lessons should be adoptad us a general rule.

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