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221. Locality (Where ?) relates to the diiferent dimension of space, and is represented by the opposites, in, out of; within, without ; before, behind or after ; over, under; above, beneath or below; on or upon, underneath. To these are added, at, near, round, around, about, across, along, beside, through.

(a.) Between and betwixt denote a place between two positions. Among and amidst refer to several positions.


Analyze the following propositions, and parse tre phrases :

The kangaroo lives in New Holland. Burgoyne surrendered at Saratoga. A treaty of peace was concluded at Marseilles. Napoleon was banished to St. Helena. The battle was fought at Vittoria. The church stands beside the river. Mesopotamia was situated between two rivers. The nuncio came from Rome. The Israelites came out of Egypt. They went to Canaan.

We sat on the sofa. The birds flew over the barn. The rabbits burrowed under the tree. We sailed around the island.

Write sentences of your own, limiting the predicates by the following phrases :

Over the hill ; on the ground; up the tree; to New York; from Philadelphia ; through the air; on the steps; toward the east; beside the wall; around the garden; by Long Island ; along the road; athwart the sky.

MODEL. The horse ran over the hill. Change the following adverbs to equivalent phrases and apply them in sentences of your oion

llere, there, hither, thither, hence, thence, eastward westward, homeward, somewhere,' nowhere, everywhere, vonder.

MODEL. The consul resides in this place. Write fifteen sentences limiting the predicates by phrases denoting place. Let five refer to DIRECTION, and ten to LOCALITY.


222. It has been seen (78, a. b.) that an event may relate to two points Jf time,- that of the speaker, and a specified time. The specified time may be denoted by the phrase.

223. Phrases, like adverbs, may refer to tho past, present, and future ; but, unlike them, may denote three relations in reference to each of these three grand divisions. (78, b. c.)

224. Phrases are used to mark the time of an event more definitely. They may denote a point a period, or frequency of time, and, like the adverb, answer the questions, When?

How long?

How often?

(a.) Frequency is generally expressed by the noun times, limited by some numeral denoting the number of repetitions; as, " It was done (for) four times.” Below four times, the adverb is generally used; as, once, twice, thrice.

(6.) The preposition is often omitted in phrases denoting either of thọ above relations; and in those denoting frequency, it is rarely expressed; as, “We labored all day;" “ The steamer left last Monday;"" Randolph crossed the Atlantic sixteen times in sine years.'

(6.) The following table contains the pri: cipal prepositione emploved to donote the different relations of time :

1. Point ..

= at, on, in, within, by

2. Period. = for, during, througs 1. Time siinultaneous.

throughout. 3. Frequency.*

1. Point before, ere, lowards 11. Time antecedent. . 2. Period ...

till, until. 3. Frequency = for.

1. Point ....= after. III. Time subsequent.. 2. Period ...from, since.

3. Frequency = for. (d.) A point of time, is often denoted by the preposition and participle; as, “I went, on hearing the news.”

(e.) Between and betwirt denote both antecedent and subsequent time, since they refer to two points; as, “ ) shall leave be tween Monday and Thursday."


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Analyze the following propositions, and tell whether the phrases denote a time simultaneous with, antecedent to, or subsequent to, the time of the event :

The steamer left on Friday. The cars will arrive at twelve. Some birds remain throughout the year. My cousin staid a week. (224, b.) The work must be completed before Saturday. The stage will arrive towards morning. The president staid till Monday. The boat left after twelve. I have been here since sunrise. The boat was repaired six times..

Write ten sentences, each containing some phrase denoting time.

Select fifteen sentences from your reading lesson, each having a phrase denoting time.

As the present is but an instant, a repetition of an act cannot occur in present time. We cannot say, “I do it ten tires," unless we use “ do " in the ser ne of “ shall do."


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225. Phrases which dente cause or source gen. erally answer the questions, Why? On what account? For what purpose ? From what source ? as, “Christ was betrayed for money

(a.) The prepositions used to denote these relations are, most commonly, for, with, of, from, by, through. To these add the phrases on account of and because of.

226. The infinitive often expresses ą moral cause or motive; as,

6. He went to see.(a.) The infinitive commonly called absolute, denotes a pur. pose ; as, “ To confess the truth, I was present."

227. The participial noun often expresses a cause or motive ; as, “ He was arrested for stealing."

EXERCISE 36. The poor man died of hunger. The woman fainted from fright.

The farmer was imprisoned for debt. The soldier fights for glory. The party were travelling for pleasure. The victim seemed, by his dress, to be a sailor. The children went to see the animals. They remained to visit cheir friends. Washington sent an officer to reconnoitre the enemy's camp. We stopped to see the consui.

Write twenty sentences, limiting each predicate by a phrase denoting cause.


228. Phrases denoting manner, like their corresponding adverbs, may denote either quality or quantity. Those which denote qua'ity answer the

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బీ, ,

question, Ilow ? as. "The messenger came (Hort?,

Those which denote quantity answer the questions, How much? &c.; as, “ The wall was ten rods long."

(a.) Phrases denoting quality are commonly connected with verbs ; those denoting quantity, with adjectives.

229. Phrases answerirg the question, How ? are,

(a.) Those which show how any thing is done ;

“ The height of the mountain was measured with accuracy; (6.) Those which show a resemblance ; as,

6 The water rushed like a torrent ;'

(c.) Those which show the means or instrument ; as,

" Turenne was killed with a cannon ball ;

(d.) Those which denote accompaniment ; as, « Abraham went with Lot;" (e.). Those which denote agency; as,

66 The world was made by him."

Note. Such phrases as “ with certainty, '“ in truth," “ without doubt,” show the manner of the assertion, and are therefore expanded forms of the modal adverbs (134) “ certainly,” “truly," * doubtless."

230. Quantity may be spoken of absolutely, or by way of comparison ; as, “ The horse is twenty vears old ;” “The horse is too old for service."

231. Quantity used absolutely may mark,

(a.) Degree of magnitude; as," She was modest to excess ;

(6.) Measure of magn tude : as, “ The wall is ten feet high ;” –

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