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16 is called an objective elen, ent of the second class, as, "I desire to speak ;“I spoke of him."

207. The only form used as the direct object of a transitive verb is the infinitive ; as, “We in. tend (What?) to leave to-day;" “They tried (What?) to conceal their fears.”

208. The infinitive is used to complete the meaning of verbs which do not take a substantive as an object; as, “He seemed to revive."

(a.) The infinitive is often used to complete the meaning of adjectives; as, “ The pupils are anxious to learn."

(5.) The verbs and adjectives which are followed by the infin. itive, are commonly such as refer to some operation of the mind; as, desire, desirous; emulate, emulous.

209. The infinitive has two distinct uses as a modifier of the prec icate. It may be used as a complement of a verb or adjective; or it may de note a purpose; as, “ We went (Why ?) to visit our friends."

(a.) The latter is an adverbial relation, and will be consid ered in another place.


Personal Object with an Infinitive.

210. A class of verbs, in addition to those mensioned in T 122, (b.) take an object denoting some person, (sometimes a thing,) and an infinitive :sed as an attribute of it, (120.) as, “ He urged me to


(@) The first object should be regarded as the subje :t of the as,

Infinitive. (122, d.) This construction resembles the acc isative with the infinitive in the Latin and Greek.

(6.) The subject of the infinitive must be a different persoj from the subject of the principal verb; otherwise the first objeci is omitted; as, “ I wisb you to go;” “I wisk to go."

211. When such verbs assume the passive form, *he first or personal object becomes the subject, and the infinitive renains in the predicate, (122;;

“ They made the man labor ; 6. The man was made to labor."

212. The infinitive takes the place of the direct object after certain verbs, (123,) and has, at the same time, the indirect object for its subject; as, “He taught me to write;" "I was taught to

Compare with the preceding, “He taught me writing,” (185, a ) or “Writing was taught me ;” “I was taught writing.

213. The to of the infinitive is omitted aster the active voice of bid, dare, let, makt, hear, need, feel, see ; as, “I heard him say it.”

(a.) After the passive form of these verbs, the to is genes • ally expressed; as, “He was heard to say it."

write." *

Direct and in tirect Object.


214. The indirect object cannot always be expressed by a single word. (123.) It often requires a preposition to show its relation to the predicate, especially if the direct object is placed r.ext the: verb; as, “ George gave a book to me."

Writing and to write (124, a.) may be considered as the shject after the pası've was taught.

(a I ne indirect object often shows the source from which au action tends, the material out of which any thing is made, or the theme of conversation; as, “ We made a bor out of wood;" 6 Ho made a fire of coals; ” “ They begged a favor of me;"" He spoke of a reward."

215. Some verbs take an indirect object onlv; as, « Charles spoke of his father."

(a., Such verbs often assume the passive form; in which case, the preposition must follow the passive verb; as, “His father was spoken of ; "" The anchor is trusted to."

(6.) It is not always easy to distinguish an indirect object from an adderbral circumstance. The general rule is this :- An indi "ect object denotes the tendency of an action to or from soine object; whereas an adverbial circumstance denotes the place, time, cause, or manner, of an action.

216. The indirect object is often used to com plete the meaning of adjectives which denote some state of the mind, or are derived from verbs; as, “ The general was desirous of glory" = (“desired glory.")


Analyze the following examples, and parse the infinitives:

They began to sing. The boy learned to write. I did not expect to find it. The children love to play. We hope to see him. The ambassador desired to have an interview.

He seemed to sleep. We ought to know. The sun appears to rise.

The boy was anxious 10 learn. The student was ambitious to rise.

I exhorted him to return. Ca Imus tanght the Greeks to use letters. Let us sit. (213.) I heard him speak. We made them step. He bade me go. I saw him fall. The

officer cuinmanded the soldiers to fire. We told them w wait. I ordered him to leave. The doves besought the hawk to defend them. Fingal bade his sails to rise.

Change the verbs in the last paragraph to the pasnoe voice. (211.)

MODEL. He was exhorted to return. Write sentences containing the following predicatee, and limit each predicate by a direct and an indirect object, placing the di: ect object first :

Lend, teach, make, bring, throw, give, present, write, buy, ask, play, show, deny, refuse, promise.

MODEL. I lent a book to father. Re-write these examples, and place the indirect noject first, omitting the preposition.

Model. I lent father a book. Change any twelve of the above infinitives to participial nouns.

MODEL. They began singing.



217. Whenever the phrase is used to limit a verb or adjective by denoting some relation of place, time, cause, or manner, it is called an adverbial element of the second class ; as, “ The messenger came from Washington ; “We left on Tuesday; " " Ile ran for fear; “ You wrote in haste."

(a.) Since the phrase denotes an adverbial relation, it can often be changed to an adverb. So also the adverb may ctton be changed to a phrase. (178, b.)


We left on Tuesday.
It is a simple sentence, because it contains but one

proposition. We ... is the subject, and Left .. is the predicate, both principal elements of the

first class. We

... is not limited. Left is limited by the phrase " on Tuesday,” an ad.

verbial element of the second class, denoting the

time of leaving On ... is a preposition, and shows the relation of “ Tues

day” to “ leave;" according to Rule XIII. Tuesday is a noun, &c., and completes the relation of

"on;" according to Rule XIV.


218. Phrases, like adverbs of place, (128,) denote three relations, - whither, whence, where. The first two refer to direction ; :he third, to locality.

219. Tendency to a place (Whither ?) is indicated by to, towards, into, ur, down, and sometimes for.

(a.) Tendency in a vertical direction is indicated by the oppu. sites up and down; in a horizontal direction, by along, if it has

reference to a limit; by towards, if it only approaches a limit; oy to, if it reaches it; and by into, if it enters it.

220 Tendency from a place (Whence?) is denoted by from, out of

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