Billeder på siden





10 And God called the dry land Earth, and 1 The creation of heaven and earth, 3 of the light, the gathering together of the waters called

6 of the firmament, 9 of the earth separated from he Seas: and God saw that it was good. the waters, 11 and made fruitful, 14 of the sun, 11 And God said, Let the earth bring moon, and stars, 20 of fish and fowl, 24 of beasts and cattle, 26 of man in the image of God. 29 Also

forth grass, "the herb yielding seed, and the the appointment of food.

fruit tree yielding fruit after his kind, whose

seed is in itself, upon the earth: and it N’ the beginning God cre- was so. Pated the heaven and the 12 And the earth brought forth grass, earth.

and herb yielding seed after his kind, and 2 And the earth was with- the tree yielding fruit, whose seed was in out form, and void : and dark- itself, after his kind : and God saw that it ness was upon the face of the was good. deep. (And the Spirit of God 13 And the evening and the morning moved upon the face of the were the third day. waters.

14 And God said, Let there be 'lights 3 And God said, 'Let in the firmament of the heaven to divide there be light: and there was 20the day from the night; and let them be light.

for signs, and for seasons, and for days, and 4 And God saw the light years: that it was good: and God 15 And let them be for lights in the firdivided the light from the mament of the heaven to give light upon the darkness.

earth: and it was so. 5 And God called the light 16 And God made two great lights; the Day, and the darkness he greater light "to rule the day, and the lesser called Night. “And the even- light to rule the night: he made the stars ing and the morning were the also. first day.

17 And God set them in the firmament 6 T And God said, 'Let of the heaven, to give light upon the earth, there be a firmament in the 18 And to "rule over the day, and over the midst of the waters, and let night, and to divide the light from the dark

it divide the waters from ness: and God saw that it was good. the waters.

19 And the evening and the morning 7 And God made the firmament, and

were the fourth day. divided the waters which were under the 20 , And God said, 'Let the waters bring firmament from the waters which were above forth abundantly the moving creature that the firmament: and it was so.

hath life, and fowl that may fly above the 8 And God called the firmament Heaven. earth in the open firmament of heaven. And the evening and the morning were the 21 And God created great whales, and second day.

every living creature that moveth, which the 9 And God said, Let the waters under waters brought forth abundantly, after their the heaven be gathered together unto one kind, and every winged fowl after his kind: place, and let the dry land appear: and it and God saw that it was good. was so.


22 And God blessed them, saying, "Be i Psalm 33. 6, and 136. 5. Acts 14. 15, and 17. 24. Heb. 11.3.

3 Heb. between the light and belieen the darkness. * Heb. and the evening was, and the morning was, &c.

10 Heb. between the day and between the night. for the rule of the day, &c. 12 Jer. 31. 35. 14 Or, creeping.

16 Heb.face of ihe firmament of 11 Chap. 8. 17, and 9. 1.

6 Heb. expansion.

2 2 Cor. 4. 6.
5 Psalm 136.5. Jerem. 10. 12, and 51. 15.
9 Deut. 4. 9. Psalm 136. 7.
13 2 Esdr. 6. 47.

15 Heb, soul.

7 Job 38. 8.

11 Heb.

Psalm 33. 7, and 136.6.

8 Heb. tender grass.


19 Matth. 19. 4.

25 Ecclus. 39. 16.

fruitful, and multiply, and fill the waters in 28 And God blessed them, and God said the seas, and let fowl multiply in the earth. unto them, "Be fruitful, and multiply, and

23 And the evening and the morning replenish the earth, and subdue it: and have were the fifth day.

dominion over the fish of the sea, and over 24 | And God said, Let the earth bring the fowl of the air, and over every living thing forth the living creature after his kind, cattle, that "moveth

that "moveth upon the earth. and creeping thing, and beast of the earth 29 | And God said, Behold, I have given after his kind : and it was so.

you every herb bearing seed, which is upon 25 And God made the beast of the earth the face of all the earth, and every tree, in after his kind, and cattle after their kind, the which is the fruit of a tree yielding seed;" and every thing that creepeth upon the earth to you it shall be for meat. after his kind : and God saw that it was good. 30 And to every beast of the earth, and

26 | And God said, ''Let us make man in to every fowl of the air, and to every thing our image, after our likeness: and let them that creepeth upon the earth, wherein there is have dominion over the fish of the sea,

and ?life, I have given every green herb for meat: over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and it was so. and over all the earth, and over every crecp- 31 And God saw every thing that he had ing thing that creepeth upon the earth. made, and, behold, it was very good. And

27 So God created man in his own image, the evening and the morning were the sixth in the image of God created he him; "male day. and female created he them. 18 Chap. 5. 1, and 9. 6. Wisd. 2. 23. I Cor. 11. 7. Ephes. 4. 24. Col. 3. 10.

90 Chap. 9. 1.

21 Heb. creepeth. 22 Heb, seeding seed. 88 Chap. 9. 3. 24 Heb, a living soul. Verse 5. The prening and the morning were the first day.”—This phrase is explained by the computations of time still in use among the Jews and Mohammedans. They do not measure the day from midnight to midnight as we do, nor from sunrise to sunrise as some other Oriental people, but from sunset to sunset. Hence the night with the following day, and not the day with the following night, makes their day. Our Friday night is their Saturday night. The ancient inhabitants of western and central Europe, the Gauls, Celts, and Germans, measured the day in the same manner.

11, 12.- The word translated “grass” is applicable to every kind of verdure in the state of sprouting, when taken collectively; while that rendered “herb” denotes the maturity of its growth. The terms “herb yielding seed" are very emphatic in the original, which are literally herb seeding seeil

, exactly imitated by the Septuagint otsipoy origua. Although the object of the Scripture was not to teach men philosophy, but religious and moral truth, yet we often find deep philosophy also. So here we have a most important hint about the distribution of plants, which was made, not by a reference to their colours, size, or foliage, but by a specific allusion to the nature of the seed.

20. “ Moving creature.”—The Hebrew word Sheretz appears to have been extended to all kinds of living creatures, inhabiting either the land or the water, which are oviparous, and therefore, in this instance, includes the finny tribe as well as the other tenants of the deep. They are all remarkable for fecundity. The number of eggs in the roe of a tish cannot be counted, though it may be guessed at by a kind of computation. A familiar but lively instance of fecundity is seen in the common frog about the time of harvest, when the tadpoles have just reached their last stage of transfurmation. No wonder, then, that in the language of Inspiration, the same word which denotes an oviparvus animal in general should, with the necessary grammatical modification, also signify to incrense abundantly.

21. And God created great whales.—Under the term Tarnim, Heb., xnin, Gr., are comprehended all those mammiferous tenants of the ocean which belong to the order celacra. Of this order the sea calf, trichecus monatus, the dolphin, porpoise, and the whale are examples. Though they inhabit the same medium, and resemble fishes in their general form, yet they differ from them in many important particulars; and, for this reason, the Sacred historian has honoured them with a separate mention. They respire by means of lungs, though dest ned to spend their lives in the water, and are therefore obliged, from time to time, to ascend to the surface to inhale the atmospheric air; their blood is warm, and their ears open outwards, though by small orifices. But what is of the highest importance in classification, they suckle their young, and therefore take a place among the mammalia.

Hinged fowl.”—We are induced at first sight to ask what connexion there is between the fishes of the sea and the fowls of the air, that they should occur together in the same verse. In point of external form there is no resemblance, but they are alike oviparous, and are alike destined and equipped for rising in and making their way through a fluid.

24. Cattle.”—Under the term “cattle," seem to be included all the ruminant animals, and perhaps certain others which resemble them in their herbivorous nature.

Beast of the earth.By this phrase we understand, not only those animals which are properly carnivorous, as the lion and the wolf, but the rodentia (or gnawing), the rabbit, mouse, &c., and the pachydermata (or thick-skinned), the hog, the elephant, &c.

* Creeping thing.—This designation was applied all the vertebrated animals that live upon the land, whether they run upon four feet, like the lizard and the iguana, or simply glide along the ground by means of abdominal scutella or scales, like the viper and the snake. They all agree in being oviparous, or in propagating their kind by eggs.

29. Behold, I have given you every herb,&c.—Plants and fruits only being specified as the articles of sustenance allowed to man, it is considered by many commentators that animal food was not permitted until after the Flood, when we find it granted to Noah under certain restrictions. There is no difficulty in supposing animal food not in use in the primitive times; for it can hardly be said to be so, generally speaking, in Asia, at the present day. The mass of the people have it only occasionally and in small quantities, and many do not eat flesh meat more than two or three times in a year. Whether eaten or not, animals were certainly killed for sacrifices before the Deluge.


12 And the gold of that land is good:

there is bdellium and the onyx-stone. 1 The first sabbath. 4 The manner of the creation.

13 And the name of the second river is 8 The planting of the garden of Eden, 10 and the river thereof. i7 The tree of knowledge only Gihon: the same is it that compasseth the forbidden. 19, 20 The naming of the creatures. whole land of Ethiopia. 21 The making of woman, and institution of mar

14 And the name of the third river is riage.

Hiddekel: that is it which goeth 'toward the Thus the heavens and the earth were finished, east of Assyria. And the fourth river is and all the host of them.

Euphrates. 2 'And on the seventh day God ended his 15 And the Lord God took the man and work which he had made; and he rested on put him into the garden of Eden to dress it the seventh day from all his work which he and to keep it. had made.

16 And the LORD God commanded the 3 And God blessed the seventh day, and man, saying, Of every tree of the garden sanctified it : because that in it he had rested" thou mayest freely eat: from all his work which God 'created and 17 But of the tree of the knowledge of made.

good and evil, thou shalt not cat of it for 4 These are the generations of the hea- in the day that thou eatest thercof thou vens and of the earth when they were created, shalt surely die. in the day that the LORD God made the earth 18 | And the LORD God said, It is not and the heavens,

good that the man should be alone; I will 5 And every plant of the field before it make him an help meet for him. was in the carth, and every herb of the field 19 And out of the ground the Lord God before it grew: for the Lord God had not formed every beast of the field, and every caused it to rain upon the earth, and there fowl of the air ; and brought them unto was not a man to till the ground.

"Adam to see what he would call them: and 6 But there went up a mist from the whatsoever Adam called every living creaearth, and watered the whole face of the ture, that was the name thereof. ground.

20 And Adam "gave names to all cattle, 7 And the Lord God formed man ‘of the and to the fowl of the air, and to every

beast "dust of the ground, and breathed into his of the field; but for Adam there was not nostrils the breath of life ; and ‘man became found an help meet for him. a living soul.

21 And the LORD God caused a deep 81 And the Lord God planted a garden sleep to fall upon Adam, and he slept: and eastward in Eden; and there he put the man he took one of his ribs, and closed up the whom he had formed.

flesh instead thereof; 9 And out of the ground made the LORD 22 And the rib, which the Lord God had God to grow every tree that is pleasant to taken from man, made he a woman, and the sight, and good for food; the tree of life brought her unto the man. also in the midst of the garden, and the trec 23 And Adam said, This is now bone of my of knowledge of good and evil.

bones, and flesh of my flesh: she shall be called 10 And a river went out of Eden to water Woman, because she was "taken out of Man. the garden; and from thence it was parted, 24 Therefore shall a man leave his father and became into four heads.

and his mother, and shall cleave unto his 11 The name of the first is "Pison : that is

wife: and they shall be one flesh. it which compasseth the whole land of Ha- 25 And they were both naked, the man vilah, where there is gold;

and his wife, and were not ashamed. 1 Exod. 20. 11, and 31. 17. Deut. 5. 14. Heb. 4. 4. 2 Heb. created to make. 3 Or. a mist which went up from, &c.

4 Heb. dust of the ground. 5 Ecclus. 17. 1. I Cor. 15. 47. 6 I Cor. 15. 45. 7 Ecclus. 24. 25. 8 Heb. Cush. 9 Or. eastucard to Assyria. Adam. 11 Heb euting thiu shalt eat. 12 Heb. dying thou shalt die. 13 Heb. as before him. 14 Or, the man.

15 Heb. called, 16 Heb. builded. 17 1 Cor. 11.8. 18 Maith. 19. 5. Mark 10.7. I Cor. 6. 16. Ephes. 5.31.

Verse 2. On the seventh day God ended his work.”—This should rather be translated had ended, as it appears from the context that he ended on the sixth day, and “rested” (not as implying repose after labour) on the seventh." The Hebrew text is, however, probably corrupted ; the Samaritan and Septuagint read the “sixth” day.

8. “The Lord God planted a garden eastward in Eden,&c., to verse 15.-There is probably no subject on which such a diversity of opinions has been entertained as concerning the site of the Paradise in which the progenitors of mankind were placed. Mohammedans even believe that it was in one of the seven heavens, from which Adam was cast down upon the earth after the Fall. “ Some,” says Dr. Clarke, “place it in the third heaven, others in the fourth ; some within the orbit of the moon, others in the moon itself; some in the middle regions of the air, or beyond the earth's

10 Or,

attraction; some on the earth, others under the earth, and others within the earth.” Every section of the earth's surface has also, in its turn, had its claim to this distinction advocated. From this mass of conflicting opinions we shall select the two which have been supported by the most eminent authorities, and which seem to have the strongest probabilities in their favour.

It has been assumed that, in whatever situation, otherwise probable, the marks by which Moses characterises the spot are to be found, there we may suppose that we have discovered the site of Paradise. In fixing the first probability, the all but unquestionable fact that the known rivers Euphrates and Tigris are mentioned as two of the four rivers of Eilen, is of the greatest importance; and therefore the most exact inquirers have not sought for the spot at any point distant from those rivers. The Euphrates and Tigris being thus then identified with two of the rivers of Eden, there has remained a great latitude in the choice of a site for the garden, some looking for it near the source of those rivers, and others seeking it in the low and flat plains through which they flow in the lower part of their course.

The first position places Eden in Armenia, near the sources of the four great rivers Euphrates, Tigris (Hiddekel), Phasis (Pison), and the Araxes (Gihon). The similarity of sound between Phasis and Pison is considered to strengthen this opinion, as does also the similarity of meaning between the Hebrew name Gihon and the Greek Araxes, both words denoting swiftness.

One consideration that induced a preference for this site is, that the advocates of this opinion considered "heads” as applied to the rivers which went forth from the garden to mean “sources," which would therefore render it natural to look for the terrestrial paradise in a mountainous or hilly country, which only could supply the water necessary to form four heads of rivers. But others, those who would fix the site towards the other extremity of the two known rivers, reckon it sufficient, and indeed more accordant with the text, to consider the “ four heads” not as sources, but as channels--that is, that the Euphrates and Tigris united before they entered the garden, and after leaving it divided again, and entered the Persian Gulf by two mouths ; thus forming four channels, two above and two below the garden, each called by a different name. The river or channel,” says Dr. Wells," must be looked upon as an highway crossing over a forest, and which may be said to divide itself into four ways, whether the division be made above or below the forest." With this view some writers are content to take the present Shat-ul-Arab (the single stream which is formed by the confluence of the Tigris and Euphrates, and which afterwards divides to enter the gulf) as the river that went through the garden ; but as Major Rennell has shown that the two great rivers kept distinct courses to the sea until the time of Alexander, although at no great distance of time afterwards they became united, other writers are contented to believe that such a junction and subsequent divergence did, either in the time of Moses, or before the Deluge, exist in or near the place indicated. The deluge must have made great changes in the beds of these and many other rivers, and inferior agencies have alone been sufficient greatly to alter the ancient channels of the Tigris and Euphrates. This is not only rendered obvious by an inspection of the face of the country, but the memory of such events is preserved by local traditions, and they are even specified in the writings of the Arabian geographers and historians. Thus, then, of the two most probable conjectures, one fixes the terrestrial Paradise in Armenia, between the sources of the Euphrates, Tigris, Phasis, and Araxes"; and the other identifies the land of Eden with the country between Bagdad and Bussorah ; and, in that land, some fix the garden near the latter city, while others, more prudently, only contend that it stood in some part of this territory where an ancient junction and subsequent separation of the Euphrates and Tigris took place.

11. “ Pison.”—The river Pison is mentioned first, as being the nearest to Arabia Petræa, where Moses wrote, and, on the last mentioned hypothesis concerning Eden, is the westernmost of the two great channels into which the Euphrates and Tigris were divided, after having flowed jointly through the garden. The hypothesis which identifies it with the Phasis has been already mentioned. Faber inclines to make it the Absarus of Pliny, or Batoum of modern geographers, which rises in Armenia and flows into the Black Sea: but Hales believes the Araxes to have a better claim.

Haviluh.”—The same hypothesis requires the land of Havilah to be the eastern tract of Arabia, lying near and on the head of the Persian Gulf. Dr. Wells, in his “ Historical Geography of the Old and New Testaments,” adduces other passages of Scripture in support of this opinion, and shows that the characteristics here given apply to that country. Faber and others, who place Eden in Armenia, identify Ilavilah with Colchis, which was famous in antient times for its gold. Hales adds Georgia to Colchis to form Havilah.

Gold.”—By this s doubtless meant native gold, or gold free, when picked up, from any admixture of earthy substance, with which it is for the most part found in a state of combination. "Native gold, when pure, was highly esteemed, and known in Greek under the term átipfov, or such as had not undergone the process of fusion to separate the baser matters from it. It is generally found near streams of water, which, as they break down and sweep the crumbling soil with them, convey some of its precious contents at the same time.

12. Bilellium.”—The bdellium, once so famous for its medical virtues, is a kind of gum resin, but from what tree originally gathered is at present only a subject of conjecture. The decision, however, of this question is of little importance, since the bdellium of the Sacred writer was in all probability the pearl, as the Arabic version has rendered it. If we suppose that the land of Havilah lay near the Persian Gulf, there was good reason for mentioning the pearl among the most distinguished of its natural productions.

Onyx-slono," Eben hash shōham.The onyx-stone has a whitish ground, and is variegated with bands of white and brown which run parallel to each other. It is a semi-pellucid stone of a fine flinty texture, taking an excellent polish, and is strictly of the flint or siliceous class. The resemblance which its ground colour has to that lunated spot at the base of the human nail was the reason why it was called évízrov, from övvž, the nail. The Septuagint has translate: bědilach, or bdelliuin, övfpas, a carbuncle, or the choicest kind of garnet; while for “onyx-stone” we have ó ñótes ó nguoivos, or prasiun, a stone akin to the emerald, but inferior in hardness, lustre, and transparency.

13. Gihon.”—The statement which makes the Pison the western, makes this stream the eastern channel by which the re-divided stream entered the Persian Gulf. No trace can now be discovered in the country indicative of either this name or that of Pison. But it deserves to be mentioned, that the Arabs are to this day in the habit of calling a stream by different names in different parts of its course. The Tigris has three names before it joins the Euphrates; and if two rivers joined, and afterwards separated, they certainly would, and actually do, call the new channels by names different from the original streams. Some find Gihon in the Araxes; and many in the antient Gyndes, which, entering the Tigris through Susiana, would correspond well even with the hypothesis which places Eden in Irak Arabi.

Ethiopia."— This is, of course, not the country in Africa so called. The word in the original and in the margin of our translation is Cush, and is understood to apply here to the land lying to the east of the channel supposed

« ForrigeFortsæt »