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The author has, in very few instances, condescended to argue upon the subject which he has chosen for discussion-dogmatic assertion appears to be the only weapon suited to the capabilities of his intellect--nor can we believe that the Rev. Gentleman's mental acumen would be capable of carrying him through one page of accurate reasoning, even in defence of that cause

which he has devoted himself with so much of the Quixotic chivalry of intellectual heroism. Essay principally consists of assertion followed by assertion, the only evidence of whose truth is the positive dicta of the author. Surely he must have a very mean and unworthy idea of the understandings of the community, when he obtrudes so many of his unfounded crudities upon the public, and expects them to be received as so many demonstrated truths.

We have read some of Dr. Drummond's poetical productions, and though they can scarcely lay claim to mediocrity, yet would we most earnestly recommend him rather to court the muses than again commit himself as a theological writer. Indeed, the gentleman, upon many occasions we should think, was scarcely aware whether his Essay was to appear as a theological production, or as a piece of pure poetic fancy ;and the most charitable method which we can devise for excusing his absurdities, is, by admitting that he merely gave way for a moment to the poetic enthusiasm of his imagination, so as to cast a few of the brilliant coruscations of bis genius over the dark, benighted gloom of Calvinism, like the war. rior when he throws up, in the dead of night, the flaming rocket, to enable him to take a better and a deadlier aim at the opposing foe. But, indeed, so great appears to be the dread with which our author regards the Calvinistic system, that no sooner does he approach it than he utters an exclamation of horror, flies from its terrifying precincts as speedily as possible, and then standing at a respectful distance he bespatters it with all the opprobrious epithets which either good fortune or his own charitable and liberal disposition can devise. Whenever the author descends from the sublimation of his heroics to sober argumentation, he has only retailed over again, but of a more diluted consistency, the arguments of Turnbull, Taylor, and others of the same school. We presume that he has never read the reply of Edwards to Taylor, though he once or twice mentions that celebrated writer's name; and as all the arguments which he has brought forward are satisfactorily answered there, we would most earnestly recommend it to his perusal, not only as a refutation of his

own errors, but as a specimen of chaste reasoning which he should endeavour to imitate in the composition of his next Theological Essay.

The pretensions of the members of the Unitarian school to an exclusive liberality of sentiment have been repeated ad nauseam ; but truly we have not read any production during the whole of the stormy period of religious controversy, which has lately taken place in this country, in which less liberality has been displayed, or more of the sour rancour of bigotry than in this Essay. Those who entertain the opinions generally denominated Orthodox or Calvinistic, are uniformly designated the “corruptionists.” “We might suspect," says he, ó that all their views were taken from hordes of savages or cannibals,-or in the most profligate dens of iniquity, among liars, cheats, thieves, robbers, murderers, and culprits of every grade and caste. Now, though their representations


be correct, as far as their own experience and their own hearts are concerned, we protest against their a application to our friends and neighbours."--page 36. How liberal is this mean, worthless, unmanly insinuation ! " Again, says he, "of all strange things this appears most strange, that men, who are sensibly affected by a tale of woe, who feel compassion for the afflicted, and who would hasten to pour oil and wine into a sufferer's wounds, should, notwithstanding, embrace a doctrine which teaches them to believe that their hearts are desperately wicked; a doctrine so disgraceful to their nature, - so full of blasphemy against the author of their nature, and so decidedly confuted

by their own feelings, thoughts, and actions.”—page 43. This is certainly a new thing under the sun. The prophet Jeremiah teaches us, that, 6. The heart is deceitful above all things, and desperately wicked.Jer. xvii. 9. But Dr. Drummond setting up his authority in opposition to that of the prophet, declares that those who believe this portion of the Word of God, believe what is disgraceful to their nature, and what is full of blasphemy against the author of their nature. “Of all strange things this appears most strange,” that the belief of


declaration of the Holy Scriptures, should be denounced, by a minister of Christianity, as blasphemy against God. Whether Dr. Drummond or the prophet should be accounted worthy of the greater credit, reader judge. The prophet, if our author be correct, is chargeable not only with having entertained thoughts which were blasphemous in their character, but also with the horrible crime of having taught that which is blasphemous under the pretended authority and sanction of the God of heaven. Surely Unitarianism must be at a low ebb, when its supporters are reduced to this. Such is the spirit of this pamphlet-such is the reckless disregard which the author manifests respecting the announcements of heaven, and such is his liberality, that by differing from him you are denounced as guilty of blasphemy against God. This is certainly Christian charity with a witness.

We have merely taken these few passages at random, and they form but a sample of those which we had intended to adduce, breathing the same spirit, and equally opposed to the positive declarations of the Word of God. We have refrained, lest our observations should extend further than the merits of the work, under consideration, should demand. There are, however, a number of errors into which the author has run, which, whilst they show his want of accuracy in thinking, and the superficial character of his views, do also display his lamentable ignorance of the system which he is opposing. It is granted by Dr. Drummond, that moral evil does exist in the world, or, in other words that men are guilty of sin :-he accuses Calvinists of blasphemy against God, by entertaining certain opinions respecting its origin; but it must be evident to every impartial and intelligent reader of his pamphlet, that the clumsy method in which he endeavours to account for it, is open to greater objections than the Calvinistic, and besides it has the disadvantage of being hostile to revelation, whilst the other harmonizes with its every precept. Unless Dr. Drummond could prove that there is no such thing as sin in the world, his system must fall to the ground-nay, by it he makes God the direct and immediate cause of all the sin which is in the world, by contending that man, in his present state, is an unfallen creature; from which it must follow that the Almighty created him at first with the very intention that he should commit the iniquity of which he is guilty. The subterfuge to which the writer resorts is not only unscriptural, but it is opposed to every principle of sound and legitimate reason.

Our author appears to be ignorant of the distinction between natural and evangelical virtue, which has led him into many egregious blunders and mistakes, particularly in the section entitled a brief vindication of human nature. Calvi nists admit the existence of natural virtue, and they applaud it as much as Dr. Drummond can possibly do; but at the same time they say, that as this springs not from the motive enjoined in the revelation of heaven, it cannot fulfil the command of God. The actions which he adduces, and the dispositions which he lauds, ás vindicating human nature, are such as cannot bear upon the real point at issue—all praise them; but does the Word of God attach to them any merit sufficient to entitle the person to enter into the joys of heaven? No, all are unprofitable. The love of God must be the motive dictating their performance, as nothing else will render the agent acceptable. He also omits to mention the failings, and that unworthiness of man which arise from the non-performance of commanded duty, and which are equally offensive in the eyes of heaven, and equally opposed to the laws of God, and as much a violation of them as actual transgression.

It is with the whole heart, and mind, and soul, and strength, that we are to love God, and not with a part; and inasmuch as this is not rendered to God, agreeably to the command, in like proportion do we fall short of the standard of moral rectitude, and manifest an inherent and natural propensity to evil. Where did sin originate, if it had not sprung from the depravity of human nature ? Let this question be answered, and we will come to the real subject of debate, and not delude the unthinking, and spend our time in idle declamation, which has no relevancy to the point at issue.

Another error is, that the author frequently adduces the characters and conduct of persons renewed by the grace

of God, as examples to prove the truth of his favourite theory, that man has naturally no sinful propensities, because such individuals cannot be said to be governed and directed by them. This error, considered in connexion with the preceding one, will show to any person even superficially acquainted with the subject, that the writer is in a great measure innocent of that knowledge which would have been indispensably necessary to have qualified him for the discussion of this important theological question. As well might he attempt to prove that all men are born six feet high, because some arrive to that stature; the one mode of proof would be as logically correct as the other. By the grace of God, the renewed servants of the Lord are what they are, as Saint Paul declares of himself, but not by nature as Dr. Drummond asserts. He also labours, in his last section, to establish a favourite opinion of his ; but in his attempted proof he has been utterly unsuccessful--that the Calvinistic idea of original sin tends to demoralize man : but we can scarcely think that the author was in earnest when he attempted such an herculean task

with such nerveless strength and fragile weapons as have been employed in the vain endeavour. Will a man not have a better chance of escaping danger when he is apprised of it and on his guard against it; than if it were permitted to come upon him in all the thoughtlessness of fancied security ? So is it with the Calvanistic doctrine of original sin, men are taught to be continually on their guard against tbe commission of sin; and that which has a tendency to make men struggle against the commission of sin, has a tendency of like strength to elevate and dignify the moral character of the species. The Calvinistic system flatters not the folly, the pride, or the sensuality of man-it scatters to the winds every refuge of lies with which the sinner may endeavour to excuse his moral uncleannessm-it whispers not peace, peace, where there is no peace—and hence the unmitigated hostility which has been manifested towards it, because it will not permit the manna of heaven to be offered upon the altar of human pride or human passion. In conclusion, we would most earnestly recommend, to the author, a little more reverence for the Word of God, coupled with a more charitable feeling towards those who differ from him--a little less overweening dogmatism, with a better knowledge of the system of his opponents.



MISSIONARY SOCIETIES.-Before proceeding to make any extracts from the reports of the different Missionary Societies which are engaged in the prupagation of the Gospel among the Heathen, it may not be improper to give, in a very condensed form, a general view of the religious opinions of the different nations of the world, which will form a suitable introduction to our Missionary intelligence. This will enable our readers to appreciate what is yet to be done, and what exertions are demanded of the Chris. tian world. A mighty and extended field has yet to be cultivated; and even now, as of old, the complaint may be preferred, “truly the labourers are few-pray ye therefore the Lord of the harvest, that he would send forth labourers into the harvest."

And first of Asia. The population of this immense region is between 390 and 400 millions, all of whom, with few exceptions, are idolaters. The Chinese, Japanese, Siamese, and Burmese, amounting in all to about 216 millions, are Budhists. Budh is admitted by Hindoos of all descriptions to be the ninth avatar or descent of the Deity, in his capacity of preserver, and the votaries of this superstition appear to agree in maintaining the existence of local deities, the transmigration of souls, the punishment of the bad and the happiness of the good in a future state, and that mercy is the chief attribute of the supreme divinity or soul of the world. In the territories belonging to the British Empire, to the East India Company.

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