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thou shalt rest and stand in thy lot at the end of the days.” Hence all those who are sanctified or set apart to the invisible state, are said to receive their | Kleroi) lots, to which the fathers have given different appellations, but all expressive of the same meaning. Polycarp terms it the place due to them. Justin, the places suitable to them. Ignatius, their own place. Clemens, the holy place. So the place to which Judas went after death, is called his own place. Acts 1.25.
The psalmist, David, affords us, in his own person, an instance how much he was impressed with the popular idea of this region being below. conscious that he must one day be where separate spirits are, he thus expresses his faith in the hope of a resurrection unto life: “ Thou wilt again restore us to life, and bring us up again from (Tehomoth) 'the deeps of the earth;" i. e. from the abode of Sheol, which, like the bulk of his countrymen, he had conceived to be situate under the earth. * Psal. lxxi. 20.
We now pass to the New Testament. There, in one passage, this division is very evident. A great gulf meets the view. On one side is the
* I have, in this passage, preferred following the Ketub, or textual reading, rather than the Keri, or marginal, as it is in the common version, as being more comprehensive, and expressing the expectation, not of the psalmist only, but of all those who, liks him, were then expecting a happy resurrection,
region of the righteous; on the other is that of the wicked. From the verb of passage being employed, these two regions, although thus separated, are represented as on a level. “They who would pass over from you to us, cannot,” says Abraham to the rich man. Ik./6-26.
This division, although not expressly set forth, is yet implied in two other places. The first where Judas is said to go to his own place. The term own is expressive of an abode altogether suitable to the characters which are remanded thither. The second where St. Peter says, that God spared not the angels that sinned, but cast them down into Tartarus. 2 Pet. ii. 4.
The Jews of posterior ages mingle in their account of these regions, the phraseology both of the Greeks and the antient Hebrews.
« Good souls,” say they, “ pass over beyond the ocean straight to Paradise; but souls which are reprobate, to perdition, in the land of darkness and shadow of death."
4th. Allusions are sometimes borrowed from this state, to denote great abasement or depth of distress.
These proverbial allusions are to be considered as partaking of the nature of the hyperbole. Such as the following : “ Thou didst send thy messengers afar off, and didst dcbase thyself even unto Sheol.” So also Christ in these words addressed
to the city of Capernaum : “ And thou Caper- Ik10.15. naum, which art exalted to heaven, shalt be In.11.23. brought down to hell;” i. e. high as thou in every respect hast been favoured, yet thou shalt be subjected to an awful reverse, and be laid as low as ever thou wast raised high.” So also the Grecks and Latins are wont to express prosperity and exaltednes of situation, by the phrase being raised to the stars.
Lastly. The termination of this state is declared in the most express terms.
We may notice where this is only hinted at in an oblique manner. “ So man lieth down and riseth not till the heavens be no more; they shall not wake nor be raised out of their sleep." Here it is intimated, that their awakening, and consequently a termination of their former state, shall take place with the passing away of the visible heavens. To b/492.
The patriarch Job considers his being in Sheol 14.13,10,15 as only for a time, which he terms his warfare (Tzebai) which points to his body lying in a state of corruption : but he consoles himself with the hope that this period would coine to an end, and then the blessed change would take place." Thou wilt appoint me,” says he, “ a definitive period, and remember me.” This warfare then is the struggle with the last enemy. With the victory gained, the warfare terminates. “ All the days of
my appointed time,” says he, “ will I wait, unti (Kaliphathai) my renewal come."
This act of waiting, unites in it the sense of trust. This is peculiar to the souls in that blessed state, that there is still with them (apocaradokia) a putting forth of the head, for that renewal which is now the leading object of their heart. “ Thou shalt call,” says Job--another circumstance of the resurrection. The voice of the last trumpet shall reach my ear, “and I will answer." The dead shall hear the voice of the son of God. “ Thou shalt have a regard to the work of thine hands," not defaced as formerly, and subjected to mortality, but renewed in the perfection of beauty, completely holy, and in a state for seeing the Lord.
Both change and renewal are words of peculiar
appropriation to the time of the resurrection. 1 Cor.15. 51 “ We shall not,” says St. Paul, “ all die, but we
shall all be changed, and this mortal shall put on immortality.”_"He that sits upon the throne says, behold I create all things now.” Rev. 21.5
The end of this state is glanced at in these Acts 3.27
words: “ Whom the heavens must receive until the time of the restitution of all things." То
which we may join the following: "He must reign I Cor 15:25 till he hath put all his enemies under his feet.”
• 26 The last enemy that shall be destroyed is death. - 24 Then cometh the end when he shall have delivered
up the kingdom to the Father, and when all things shall be subdued unto him ; then shall the Son also himself be subject to him that put all things under him, that God may be all in all. v.27,28.
Now this subjugation of death is in fact a termination of this state. For what is it but a bringing their souls from the intermediate abode, termed a redeeming them from the power of Sheol, putting an end to the law which detained them there, and bringing out from the earth the dust which had slumbered there for ages? “O death I will Hos. 13.11 be thy plagues; O Sheol I will be thy destruc- tion.' .“ And Death and Hades were cast into the lake that burneth with fire and brimstone."Rev.20./4
With this state ends the intermediate reign, or mediatory kingdom of Messiah. The intercessory period is now expired, to return no more. The church is one and triumphant, and nothing now remains but bright days to roll on through heaven's eternal year.
An objection has been made against the antient Hebrews believing Sheol to be the mansion of the departed spirit, because it is said, “ in Ps.6.5 death there is no remembrance of thee, in Sheol who shall give thee thanks ?”-“Sheol cannot Js.38.18 praise thee--death cannot celebrate thee.” All this is spoken with reference to earth; that when men are in Sheol, they are seen and heard of no more by the inhabitants of the world. They no