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(poets) represented as talking, Lycon is Bryskett himself. "Colin" is "Colin Clout," or Spenser. See lines 81-89.
52. stownd. Time, or occasion. See note 38, above, for the use of the word stound, which has a very different meaning.
53. Orown. Probably a river or other stream of water in the neighborhood of the writer's home or near the country residence of the Sidneys. 54. Phillisides. Phil. Sid., Philip Sidney; philos, a lover; sidus, a star. See note on Astrophel, above.
55. rude. See note 4, on my rymes bene rudely dight, above.
56. pore turtle. The poor turtle-dove, noted for its mournful note and believed to have great affection for its mate: —
"Why then, sir, I will take a liberty to tell or rather to remember you what is said of turtle-doves, — first that they silently plight their troth and marry; and that then the survivor scorns, as the Thracian women are said to do, to outlive his or her mate, and this is taken for truth; and if the survivor shall ever couple with another, then not only the living but the dead, be it either the he or the she, is denied the name and honor of a true turtle-dove." -— Izaak Walton, Complete Angler.
The moan of doves in immemorial elms." - Tennyson, The Princess.
"The Turtle by him never stird,
Example of immortall love."-Matthew Roydon.
The name turtle was not applied to the tortoise until about 1610, twenty years after the writing of this poem.
57. make. Mate. This is the original form of the word now exclusively written mate. From A.-S. maca. The word match, a companion, an equal, is also from the same root:
"And of fair Britomart ensample take,
That was as true in love as turtle to her make."
The Faerie Queene, iii. 11.
Plumes. Sometimes written preens.
59. Pan. The god of flocks and herds, and hence specially regarded with love and fear by all shepherds. He is described in the Homeric hymns as "lord of all the hills and dales":
Knit with the Graces and the Hours in dance,
Led on the eternal Spring." — Milton, Paradise Lost, iv. 266.
Observe Lycon's sudden change of address from his companion, Colin, to the god Pan and the rural Muses. See The Sorrow of Daphnis.
60. hard constraint. Compare with Milton's "bitter constraint," Lycidas, 6 (see page 79).
61. O harmfull death, O deadly harme. Euphuism again. — Albion. England. Conjecture derives the word from Gael. alp, a highland; from albus, white, with reference to the white cliffs visible from Gaul; or from Albiones, the ancient inhabitants of Britain.
63. Pales. The goddess of sheepfolds and pastures, especially revered by the Romans. - untrust. Untrussed, disarranged. Compare this passage with Bion's reference to Aphrodite's unkempt hair, Lament for Adonis, page 21, bottom. Also Astrophel, 57, and Adonais, xiv. 4.
64. Nymphs and Oreades. See note 4, page 31.
65. wolves. Compare with The Sorrow of Daphnis, line 10, and with The Lament for Bion. Also see note 6, page 15.
66. What lucklesse destinie, etc. Compare with Milton, Lycidas, 92 and 107; and see note 8, page 16.
67. father Neptune. See Lycidas, 90.
68. Compare the mention of the river-gods Thamis, Humber, and Severn, with Milton's reference to Camus, Lycidas, 103. See also note I, page 44, and Lament for Bion, line 2.
69. cypres. The cypress was an emblem of death, and was dedicated by the Romans to Pluto. - echo. Compare with Lament for Bion, page 40, line 13, and with Adonais, xv.
70. Compare these lines with the opening lines of Moschus's Lament for Bion.
71. Satyres... daunst. Compare with Lycidas, 34.— wipe away all griefe. Compare with Lycidas, 181.
72. bay tree. The laurel. Poets and victors in the Pythian games were crowned with wreaths of laurel. Hence, a poet laureate was originally one who had received such honor. The reference here is doubtless to Sidney's series sonnets entitled Astrophel and Stella. See note 1, page 86.
73. Unhappie flock, etc. Compare with Lycidas, 125.
74. sitst above. Compare with Lycidas, 172 et seq.; and see note 64, page 93.
75. flowres. See note 15, page 33.
76. The sun, etc. Compare with Lycidas, 190-191; and see note 69, page 94.
Overtaken by misfortune, Imogen, the daughter of Cymbeline, king of Britain, was wandering in a forest, disguised as a page. Led by chance, she came to a cave wherein dwelt old Belarius and with him her own brothers, Polydore and Cadwal, whom he had stolen from their father in their infancy. She told them that her name was Fidele, and that she had lost her way while trying to reach Milford-Haven, where a kinsman of hers was about to embark for Italy. The wild forest youths, grown now to manhood's stature, welcomed her to their rude home, and she gladly accepted their pressing invitation to stay with them until she had rested from the fatigue of her journey. The longer she remained with them, the more attached did they become to her and she to them. "How angel-like he sings," said Polydore. "But his neat cookery," said Cadwal; "he sauced our broths as though Juno had been sick, and he her dieter." Then there came a day when Belarius and the brothers must go hunting, for their stock of venison was low. But Imogen was ill and could not go out with them. No sooner was she left alone than she took from her pocket a cordial which had been given her, and which until that moment she had forgotten, and drank it off. Now the person from whom she had received the cordial did not know its nature, else he would not have given it to her. It caused her to fall into a sound sleep, so deathlike that to all appearances she was dead. When Belarius and the brothers returned to the cave they found her lying, as they supposed lifeless, on the ground. Then they carried her to a shady nook in the forest, and with great sadness in their hearts covered her with leaves and flowers. "While summer lasts and I live here," said Polydore, Thou shalt not lack the flower azur'd hare-bell, like thy veins; slander, out-sweeten'd not thy
"I'll sweeten thy sad grave with flowers. that's like thy face, pale primrose; nor the no, nor the leaf of eglantine, whom not to breath. All these will I strew o'er thee." repose to the spirit of their unknown guest.
And then the brothers sang
Dirge for Emogen.
Fear no more the heat o' th' sun,
Nor the furious winter's rages; Thou thy worldly task hast done,
Home art gone, and ta'en thy wages: Golden lads and girls all must, As chimney-sweepers, come to dust.
Fear no more the frown o' th' great,
Thou art past the tyrant's stroke; Care no more to clothe and eat;
To thee the reed is as the oak: The sceptre, learning, physic, must All follow this, and come to dust.
Fear no more the lightning-flash,
Nor th' all-dreaded thunder-stone; Fear no slander, censure rash;
Thou hast finish'd joy and moan: All lovers young, all lovers must Consign to thee, and come to dust.
No exorciser harm thee!