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COMMUNICATIONS, LETTERS, &c., have been received from-Baron Liebig, DR. LETHEBY'S Report on the Sanitary Inspection of the Shipping within Munich ; Dr. Brown-Séquard ; Dr. Wilks, Dr. Hyde Salter ; Dr. Haughton ; the district of the City of London during the last two years has just been

Dr. Ringer ; Dr. Hall, Brighton; Mr. Torrens, M.P.; Dr. Wilson Fox; presented to the local authorities. The Sanitary Act, it will be remem

Dr. Althaus; Dr. Peacock; Dr. Wolfe, Glasgow ; Mr. Foster; Dr. Scott, bered, applies to the case of ships within the City district equally with

San Francisco;

Dr. Miles, Gillingham; Dr. Murphy; Mr. Thompson, New. that of private houses, and after the passing of the Act a sanitary officer

castle ; Dr. Gibson, West Cowes ; Mr. Blackburn, Liverpool; Dr. Gore, was appointed to carry out its provisions. The whole of the district is only

Dublin ; Mr. Parke; Mr. J. Hartley, Malton ; Dr. Pinkerton, Bombay ; 2270 yards in length (that is, from the Temple to the Tower), and 650 yards

Mr. Chadwick; Dr. Cameron, Kirton-in-Lindsey ; Dr. Churchill, Birmingof this space (i.e., below London-bridge) is much frequented by shipping;

ham; Mr. Johnson ; Mr. Greenway ; Mr. Cunningham ; Mr. Duncan ; but the inspections have numbered 4223, and on 140 occasions it has been

Dr. Moore, King's Norton ; Mr. Prosser ; Mr. Lubbock; Mr. Binley, Roth. found necessary to order sanitary improvements. Dr. Letheby agrees

well; Dr. Coales; Dr. M'Kelvie, Appin ; Mr. Brown, Tredegar; Dr. Good, entirely with Dr. Dickson, Mr. Harry Leach, and others, as to the influence

Paris; Dr. Wilson, St. Mary's, Ontario; Mr. Green; Dr. Bradbury, Cam. of insanitation in leading to the development of fevers, other analogous

bridge ; Mr. Cattlin, Brighton; Mr. Skaife; Mr. C. Booth, Altrincham ; diseases, and scurvy on board the crafts in the river, and the desirability

Mr. Howard, New Buckenham; Mr. Prince; Dr. Griffiths, Worcester; of appointing additional inspectors in other districts; and he believes with

Dr. Macrae, Whitby ; Dr. Cheshire, Birmingham ; Dr. Mulrany, Dundalk; Dr. Barnes that every vessel and crew should be examined on arrival in

Mr. Copland; Dr. Lipscomb; Mr. Heele; Mr. Cresswell; Mr. Edmonds ; port, and if found affected with scurvy, the master should be held prima

Dr. Robert; Mr. Ireland ; Mr. Barker ; Mr. Rogers ; Dr. Gooding, Chelfacie culpable of neglect, and be put on his trial to clear himself. What is tenham ; Mr. Devereux, Newcastle ; Dr. Clayton; Dr. Evans, Lampeter ; needed, the reporter thinks, is a combined movement on the part of the

Dr. Lawrence, Chepstow; Mr. Keys; Dr. Myers, Windsor ; Mr. Hughes; several nuisance authorities in favour of a more uniform and general sys

Mr. Warren; Dr. Walker, Hanley; Dr. Kerr, Wednesbury; Mr. Gifford, tem of inspection of shipping.

Launceston; Mr. Phillips ; Mr. Woodhouse, Hartford; Mr. W. H. Clarke; A.J. O., (Manchester.)-What we wrote upon the subject was not couched

Mr. Ward; Mr. Hamilton, Liverpool; Dr. Coleman; Mr. Pitts, Coleford; in offensive or deprecatory terms of the veterinary officers, and our corre

Dr. Bryan, Moreton - in - Marsh; Dr. Alleyne, Rathkeale; Dr. Hare ; spondent may spare his indignation for some more fitting occasion. The

Mr. Daly ; Dr. Hollis, Yarmouth; Dr. Goodwin, Twyford; Rev. L. Taplin, display of wounded vanity may not be so much on the side of the writer of

Todmorden; Dr. Hall, Burton; Mr. Pugh, Brighouse ; Dr. Macarthar, the paragraph in question as on that of our correspondent.

Mr. Norton ; Dr. Morell Mackenzie ; Dr. Fletcher; Mr. Whitford ;

Mr. Love; Mr. Barnes; Dr. Owen, Liverpool; Dr. Watson, Creetown; Will Dr. Russell (Neath) oblige by sending us Dr. Ryding's account of the

Dr. Tylecote, Sandon; Dr. Brown, Belfast ; Dr. Melhuish, Exmouth; matter? Is he one of the union medical officers ?

Messrs. Coxeter and Son; Dr. Brunton, Redditch ; Dr. Allen, Longton; Vincit Omnia Veritas.-A.'s behaviour throughout appears to have been most Mr. Tenpant; Mr. Treves; Dr. Sutherland, Castletown; Dr. Birch, Gore

honourable. The charge for the certificate of death seems to us quite Lodge; Dr. Martin, Sandgate; Mr. Philipson; Dr. Jackson, Plymouth; proper.

Dr. Bentham; Dr. Clarke, Lynton; Dr. Bower; Dr. Palfrey ; Dr. Wallace ; Scrutator.-We quite concur with our correspondent. A man who advertises Dr. Gill, Dover; Mr. Latham; Dr. Morris, Spalding; J. Wallis, Cork ;

after the fashion represented places himself upon a level with advertising Mr. Gibson; Mr. Dudley, Youghal; Mr. Mackintosh, Edinburgh; Dr. Coats; quacks. The only thing to be done is for all respectable professional men Dr. Crosby, Leeds; Mr. Pearce; Mr. Mortimer ; Dr. Wadd; Mr. Broughton, to hold themselves entirely aloof from such persons, and avoid all inter- Bradford; Dr. Cooke; Mr. Crampton, Eye; Mr. Grant; Dr. Evans, Seaforth; course with them.

Dr. Cooper; Mr. Hubbard ; Dr. Haddon, Honeyburn; Dr. Green, Burford ; Enquirer.--Yes, Albert Smith was a medical student at the Middlesex Hos- Dr. Millar, Edinburgh; Mr. Wells; &c. &c. pital. He practised his profession for only a few years.

Glasgow Weekly Herald, Birmingham Daily Gazette, Nottingham Journal, D20. J.-The average increase of stature between the ages named is gene

Parochial Critic, Brighton Gazette, Birmingham Daily Post, Lincolnshire rally very trifling, under one inch.

Gazette, Free Lance, Surrey Times, Liverpool Albion, Brighton Times,

Staffordshire Sentinel, Journal of the Irish Medical Association, Shadou, Dr. Charles H. Robinson.-Our correspondent will find the information he

Cork Daily Herald, Surrey Advertiser, Bucks Herald, Brecon County seeks in THE LANCET for October 17th, p. 525.

Times, Lincolnshire Chronicle, Edinburgh Daily Review, Dublin General J.J. G.-Consult some registered medical practitioner.

Advertiser, California Medical Gazette, Gateshead Observer, Japan Times, SOLIDIFICATION OF POWDERED MARBLE.

and Revue des Cours Scientifiques have been received. To the Editor of Tue LANCET. SIR,Your correspondent, M.D., wished to find some substance which, TERMS FOR ADVERTISING IN THE LANCET. when mixed with powdered marble, would cause it to harden. I think he will find an alkaline solution of silicate of potash have the desired effect. For 7 lines and under ..........£0 4 6 For half a page

£2 12 0 I am, Sir, yours, &c., For every additional line...... 0 0 6 | For a page

5 0 0 Edinburgh University, December 29th, 1888. R. MACKINTOSH.

The average number of words in each line is eleven. Ip our correspondent at Coleford had inquired of the merest tyro in surgery, Advertisements (to ensure insertion the same week) should be delivered at

he might have learned that the operation of "removing a stone in its the Office not later than Wednesday; those from the country must be accom. entirety by incision (the patient being alive at the time) without crushing | panied by a remittance. it” is one of the most ordinary and frequently performed capital operations of surgery.

TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION TO THE LANCET. Medicus.-The statement is beneath notice.

UNSTAMPED. An Assistant.--An assistant who has passed merely the assistants' examina

STAMPED. (Free by post.) One Year £1 10 4 One Year

£1 14 8 tion at the Hall is not a duly qualified apothecary, nor can he be registered Six Months

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0 8 8 business for himself. It will be necessary for him to pass the exami. Post-office Orders in payment should be addressed to JOHN CROFT, nation at the Pharmaceutical Society in order to "keep open shop.” THE LANCET Office, 423, Strand, London, and made payable to him at the THE SANITARY ACT.

Post-office, Charing-cross. Enquirer wishes to know what boroughs and towns have taken advantage ** An Edition of "THE LANCET," printed on thin paper

of the Sanitary Act of 1866 (29 & 30 Vict., cap. 90, clause 37), which gives for Foreign and Colonial circulation, is now published weekly. power to the Town Council to erect and maintain a Fever Hospital out of the borough rates ?

The LANCET can be obtained from all the principal Booksellers and SEVERAL members of the dental profession have written to say that they Newsmen throughout the world, or from the following special agents :have satisfactorily removed several teeth at one sitting from patients

EDINBURGH: MACLACHLAN & Co. under the influence of the nitrous oxide gas, and without pain. This is, of

DUBLIN : FANNIN & CO. course, confirmatory of the Report of the Committee of the Odontological Society.

PARIS: G. GERMER BAILLIERE, Rue de l'Ecole de Médecine, 17. Mr. J. R. Binley.---The length multiplied by the breadth and the height

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA: KELLY, PIET, & Co., Baltimore gives the cubical contents of the room, and that divided by the number of Terms of Subscription by mail to any part of the United States (Terri. beds gives the amount for each bed. The respective dimensions of a room tories excepted), 12 dollars currency per annum, per Messrs. KELLY, cannot be determined solely from the cubical contents.

PIET, and Co., Baltimore. Dr. J. M. Bryan's (Moreton-in-Marsh) interesting case shall appear next CANADA: DAWSON BROTHERS, Montreal. week.

BARHAM, HILL, & CO., Dalhousie-square, Calcutta. Dr. Cameron.--We presume our correspondent means the matriculation exa- INDIA: THACKER, SPINK, & CO., Calcutta. mination. There is no such thing as a registration examination in the

THACKER, VINING, & CO., Bombay. University named.


WILLIAM MADDOCK, Sydney. ERRATUM.--In Dr. Miles's letter on “Bromide of Potassium in the Nursery,” | AUSTRALIA : which appeared in our last issue, the word "chlorodyne" should be substi.

W. C, RIGBY, Adelaide. tuted for "chloroform."

NEW ZEALAND: J. T. HUGHES, Christchurch,


is occasioned, or otherwise contraction is induced by inflammatory adhesion. Thus there are three pathological conditions which especially demand attention when treating of contractions of the limbs-namely, spastic rigidity, paralysis, and the result of local inflammation.

FIG. 16.



Delivered at St. George's Hospital, 1868.




ON CONTRACTIONS OF THE LIMBS. Congenital contractions of the knee and hip are rare; yet there are found, together with congenital distortions of the feet, retraction of the flexor muscles of the leg, as well as of those of the thigh. Usually both limbs are together affected, and in a similar manner, as in the case now before you.

In this instance there is double talipes varus, and both knees are contracted at right angles. (Fig. 15.) But although it is

FIG. 15.


The muscles of the lower limbs which are especially affected with spastic rigidity are the flexors and the adductors of the thighs,

the flexors of the legs, and the extensors of the feet. Cases are, however, occasionally met with—such as that to which I alluded in my first lecture, and which is portrayed in Fig. 1—where not only a limb, but the entire trunk and extremities, appear to be permanently affected with rigid spasm. In the case now alluded to, the rigidity continued after death. The cast, which was taken after death, shows how unchangeably the limbs were fixed in their distorted positions. Every limb was more or less contracted, whether the upper or the lower extremities; and not the limbs only, but the trunk also. The spine was curved as you rarely see a spine curved; and, further, there was wry-neck and strabismus. Less severe cases than this

are, of course, more common; and it is not uncommon to the rule that both knees or both hips shall be contracted, ex- of the thighs, with slight flexion of the thighs and legs, and

find in young children spastic contraction of the adductors ceptions occur. Such an instance lately came under the care extension of the feet. Such children also suffer from weakof my colleague, Mr. Adams, where, together with talipes ness of the muscles of the back and neck; so that the head varus of the left foot, there was also congenital contraction rolls from side to side, or falls backwards or forwards, and of the flexors of the leg, and this was so great that the dis- they cannot sit or stand upright. The hands also are wanttorted foot was drawn up almost to the pubes, and was ing in power. Perhaps, however, the slightest and most habitually placed at the top of the opposite thigh, on the frequent form in which this affection presents itself is slight front of which it lay. The other leg was in a perfectly the fingers of the same side.

talipes equinus or equino-varus, together with weakness of normal and well developed condition.

Congenital contractions of the toes are sometimes hereditary. Again, you will remember to have seen in Drummond I know a family in which for three generations every memward a case of contraction of the flexor muscles of the thigh, ber has been born with contraction of the second toe of through which the lower limbs were laid flat upon the trunk, each foot. Contraction occurs much more frequently, howwhile the feet, which were contracted in a severe form of ever, as a non-congenital affection, and for the most part talipes varas, as I believe is always the case in these distor- through wearing tight boots. From this cause one or more tions, were crossed below the chin. The case is well repre- toes may be contracted, or even they may be doubled under sented in Fig. 16. The child was brought here from the the sole of the foot, and be almost hidden from view. Belgrave Children's Hospital by Mr. Pick's permission. Not In a general hospital it is more common to see contraction only are the flexors of the thighs and the adductors and ex- of a limb as a result of local inflansmation than from the tensors of the feet retracted, but also the extensors of the causes above mentioned. No period of life is exempt from legs, so that the knees remain stiff and immovable. I have inflammation of the joints ; but there are many varieties of never seen or heard of a case of equal severity. Slighter articular inflammation, and the liability to suffer from these cases have come under my care, and in these also there has several varieties is not alike at all ages. Thus childhood is been talipes varus and retraction of the extensors of the particularly obnoxious to strumous diseases; but primary legs.

synovial inflammations are comparatively rare at this Non-congenital contraction of the knee and hip. - It has period. In the adult, however, inflammation of the synoalready been stated that these contractions are occasioned vial membranes is the rule. No joint occasions more trouble by spastie rigidity through spinal irritation ; that they arise than the knee when it becomes inflamed; it is less painful from injury to a portion of the nervous system through than the hip, its capsule being less resisting, but, on account which paralysis is induced; or that they result from inflam- of its large and complicated synovial surface, it is more mation of the structures which enter into the formation of liable to inflammatory action than any other joint, and the the limb, by which muscular retraction through irritation effects of inflammation are very frequently disastrous. The

No. 2367.


synovial secretion is poured out in increased quantity, and is the most part, in a gouty or a rheumatic diathesis, and of a more aqueous quality than in health, causing great dis- especially where spirituous liquors are habitually taken in tension of the capsule, and extension of the ligaments of the considerable quantities. Yet, even with this foundation, joint. The limb is at this time flexed; for this position there is usually some inciting cause to produce contracallows of the greatest amount of distension of the joints tion-some local irritation, together, perhaps, with exwith the least pain. The ligaments become softened and posure to cold and damp. The cabman's whip and reins, extended; and as the fluid in the joint is absorbed, the head for instance, appear to act frequently as causes of this of the tibia undergoes displacement backwards. This was common form of contraction. It may also be produced by the course of the disease in the case of Brewster M—who handling a sword, by wearing a ring, or by pressure in the lately left Fitzwilliam ward. He was admitted with a con- palm of the hand, such as is produced by the carpenter's or tracted knee, the result of inflammation about the joint. the jeweller's tools, or by leaning heavily on a stick or a Abscess had formed, and a portion of the head of the tibia crutch. In these cases the fascia in the palm of the hand was necrosed. This portion of bone was lying loose in the undergoes chronic thickening. It is a painless affection, ham, and having been removed, the wound closed. The and its course is very slow. Contraction, for the most part, flexor tendons were then divided, and the leg was gradually commences in that portion of the fascia which passes to the extended, and the head of the tibia restored to its normal little finger, and this finger becomes somewhat flexed into position, or nearly so.

the palm; and subsequently the ring, middle, and index Occasionally, contraction of the flexor muscles of the leg fingers, and very rarely also the thumb, become more or causes excruciating pain, and especially is this the case less drawn down towards the palm, and they cannot be when there is commencing ulceration. Some years since I extended. This affection is well shown in Fig. 18. The saw, together with Sir Benjamin Brodie and Dr. Metcalfe Babington, such a case. I allude to it, for I never before

Fig. 18. or since saw an instance of such powerful contraction of the flexors of the leg, attended with such acute pain. Pain was great and incessant, and so severe that this patient was anxious to lose his limb. Every night he swallowed half an ounce of tincture of opium at a dose, and frequently he repeated it, for it never secured for him more than one hour's rest. It was determined in consultation to divide the flexors, and gradually to extend the limb. So soon as the tendons were divided, pain immediately ceased, and in half an hour our patient was asleep, and without the help of opium. There was no recurrence of pain. In the course of six weeks or two months he began again to use his leg.

Contractions of the upper extremity.- In the same manner as that already described, there is also found flexion of the forearm upon the arm, through retraction of the biceps and the brachialis anticus ; of the wrist, through retraction of process of fascia which passes to each contracted finger the flexores carpi ; and of the fingers, through retraction of beco:nes more and more dense as the finger becomes more their flexors. But of all the various forms of contraction contracted ; and occasionally instances are seen where the of the upper extremity, none are more interesting and of so fingers are so firmly closed that it is difficult to introduce frequent occurrence as those of the hand.

the knife beneath the band of fascia, and even where the Congenital contractions of the fingers and hand are occa- pressure of the nail excoriates the palm. sioned by thickening and a contracted condition of those

(To be concluded.) portions of the palmar fascia which pass to the first and second phalanges, and which are attached to the ligaments of the articulation between these phalanges. The little

ON finger is very commonly alone contracted. This may seem THE NUTRITIVE VALUE OF DIFFERENT to be only a trifling affection. It occasions, however, considerable inconvenience; for the fingers cannot be fully ex

SORTS OF FOOD. panded, and, consequently, among other things, the performance of instrumental music is seriously interfered with.

BY BARON LIEBIG. Occasionally, however, cases are met with where not only

(Continued from page 5.) accomplishments are interfered with, but where the fingers are so much contracted that the ordinary avocations of life cannot be fulfilled. Such is the case with a girl (E. B

Meat contains the albuminates, which are the flesh-pro

-) at this time in Wright's ward, in whom all the fingers of ducers, in the most soluble form ; it is digested in the shortest both hands are more or less affected. The second phalanx is, time, and for its transition into the blood the least amount of in this instance, bent upon the first. (Fig. 17.) Ît is a con- work is required. Indeed, the intestine of carnivorous ani

mals is the shortest and most simple of any. The carnivorous Fig. 17.

animal bolts its food without it being necessary to reduce its size by mastication. The smaller the quantity of the albumi. nates in vegetables, the more complicated are the organs of digestion of the animals which feed on them.

With many, a chewing and rechewing is necessary, in order to separate the food sufficiently for the extraction of the nutritive parts.

Inasmuch as the effect of food depends on its transformation into blood, it must be self-evident that in a given time the effect of the food is in proportion to the rapidity with which its transmission from the intestines to the bloodvessels is effected. Experience shows that with energetic work, for work to be performed in the shortest time, a purely vegetable diet is not compatible.

A woodman in the Bavarian highlands consumes in winter, in six working days, 14 lb. of flour, from 2 lb. to 3 lb. of batter,

1 lb. of bread, and half a pint of brandy. He consumes the flour genital affection; and it renders this patient so helpless in the form of a sort of pancake, fried in butter, and chopped that she cannot gain her livelihood. In this case there is into small pieces, for he thus saves a good deal of the work of contraction more or less of all the soft structures, as well mastication. The quantity of flour corresponds to 24 lb. as of the flexor muscles themselves.

of bread daily (100 lb. of flour = - 140 lb. of bread), which at 8 Non-congenital contraction of the fingers and hand arises, for per cent. contains 130 grammes of albuminates. Thus he consumes altogether as much as a well-fed working man. His producing substances ; it would be of no effect in nourishing the work is hard, but not requiring energy; after every blow with body, and would only burden it. An extra amount of strength. his axe he can rest as long as he pleases, for the tree stands producing food would, beyond a certain limit, not add strength, still, and does not force him to make haste. The man in the because in the individual only a certain measure of strength Munich brewery requires another diet. The work he has to can be generated. do is the hardest of all, and only strong men are able to endure Economically considered, an acquaintance with the right it, for the operations follow one another uninterruptedly, and relations of the warmth- and strength-producing component tax the strength of the workman unceasingly, He has no time parts of our daily food is of the greatest importance. Long for resting during his work, which must be done as quickly as before science had furnished breeders with a sure basis to go possible. According to the quantity of food consumed in upon, the husbandman endeavoured to find out the relative seven months by 95 men in a Munich brewery, each man, in nutritive value of his different sorts of fodder, and it is to meat alone, consumed 120 grammes of albuminates, with bread this endeavour that we owe the solution of some of the most --altogether, from 160 to 170 grammes daily: thus nearly three wonderful and most important physiological problems. quarters meat, and one quarter bread. And this is easily to The food of men and of animal scontains, namely, the albube accounted for. The brewer's man consumes in meat a minates, which are necessary for producing flesh and strength, nutritive matter, which for its transition into the body and the heat-producers (starch, sugar, and fat) in very different requires a minimum of inner organic work, and he receives in relative quantities. less than three hours, from the albuminates of the meat, a The seeds of the cereals-wheat, rye, barley-contain for store of strength in his body which enables him to dispose of every ten parts albuminate fifty to fifty-five parts of starch. it at pleasure. The woodman in the mountains must, on the A similar proportion (one to five) of the albuminates to the other hand, wait from eight to ten hours until the component digestable warmth-generating substances is also found in good parts of his meal act on his body with full effect. Two work: meadow hay. In potatoes, rice, turnips, &c., this proportion men of the same weight require daily a certain number of is quite different. In potatoes, for so parts albuminate are grammes of albuminate in their food in order to lift or remove 85 and often 90 parts of starch ; in rice 120; in peas, on the a certain weight a given number of feet; he, however, who is contrary, only 25 parts ; and in rape-seed flour there are but pressed for time, and forced to accomplish his work with 13 to 14 parts of heat-generating substances. Be the state of greater speed, must have a meat diet, while for the other a the animal what it may, there is for satisfying all its wants purely vegetable diet will suffice.


but one right proportion of the albuminates, heat-producing For a soldier, in time of peace, 125 grammes of albuminate matters, and nutritive salts to be adopted. But this proportion are enough to maintain him in health, of which one quarter varies according to circumstances, and must be altered as the must be in the form of meat ; but in war time, with fatiguing breeder or grazier has this or that aim in view. If, for exmarches, and laden with 60 lb. of clothing and ammunition, ample, he desires to obtain weight by his system of feeding, he would, with such a diet, succumb to the over-exertion ; he then the proportion of the albuminates in the fodder must be requires at least from 140 to 148 grammes of albuminate, the increased; and that fodder is, of course, for him the best half of which should be in the form of meat. Thus we may which enables him to produce a maximum of meat, milk, and assume that, under similar circumstances, an army of soldiers wool at the smallest expenditure for nourishment. whose daily rations did not exceed 125 grammes of albumi. It is clear that if an animal-a pig or a sheep--requires in nate, one quarter of which only was in the form of meat, would its food 10 oz. albuminate, and 55 oz. heat-generating matter, be beaten by an army in which each man received 145 grammes for its nutrition, it will, if the 10 oz. albuminate be given in of albuminate, half of which was in the form of meat: for the the form of potatoes, have to eat fifteen pounds of steamed effect would be the same as if the latter army had better potatoes, and in these 95 oz. to 100 cz. of starch-thus, 40 oz. to weapons ; its capacity for motion is greater, and it is in a given 45 oz. of heat-generating matter more than the animal can time capable of greater exertion. We are too apt to forget turn to account. These 40 oz. of starch have a certain nutrithat the soldier's food is for the man what the powder is for tive, and for the breeder a pecuniary, value; which, however, his musket.

are in this case wholly lost to him, as starch in manure does All these are very simple and intelligible matters, which not add to its value. A similar loss would accrue if the may be learned from any coachman; for exactly the same laws animal were fed exclusively on beans or peas. In 50 oz. of obtain for the work we require of our cattle. “Our horses peas the pig would get 10 oz. of albuminate, but only 124 oz. must have oats; the oats must be in them,” said an English of starch, 424 oz. therefore less than it required. For the omnibus driver to Professor Playfair. “ If they come from perfect nutrition of the animal somewhat more than 100 oz. of the farmer they are round and plump, for the farmers feed peas would be required, and therein 10 oz. more albuminates them well. But such horses are not fit for use. They sweat would have to be given, which are ineffective for producing directly, and cannot bear a hard run. The oats must be in flesh, because they would be used up instead of the missing

starch, in order to generate warmth. What meat is to a man, oats are to horses, or, in Arabia, Thus it will be easily understood what an advantage to the barley, which of all vegetable fodder contains the albuminates breeder it must be, since science has made him exactly acin the most concentrated form, and in a state the most easily quainted with the component parts of fodder and their relatransmissible.

tive worth, to be enabled by properly mixing food to obtain, With regard to the organic work by which the heat-gene- without loss of means expended, the most favourable results. rating substances are fitted for generating warmth, the same It teaches him that with a mixture of 7ļlb. of steamed relation exists between starch, sugar, dextrin, fat, and alco- potatoes, and 25 oz. of peas, he can feed his pig well, and turn holic beverages. Starch demands the longest work; it requires to the best account the whole quantity of albuminates in the more time and more additional juices which the stomach must peas and all the starch. In this wise the cattle breeder makes secrete, in order that it may be fitted for passing into the blood, up for the missing hay by a blending of other fodder which he than sugar and dextrin, which are both of themselves soluble can command, such as turnips, potatoes, peas, rye, straw, in water. Thus the higher value which flour possesses for clover, rape-seed cake, and peas-flour. What he has to do is making bread is explained. By its porosity bread is more this : he must so mix them that they are really a surrogate easily penetrated by the gastric juice, and is soon amalga for the nourishment contained in the hay; and by finding out mated, because a part of the starch in the flour has already the fitting proportions of their component parts-fitting as undergone a transmutation into dextrin, or some other similar regards the aim to be attained—the most extraordinary results easily-soluble matter. Fat is slowly received into the circula- have been arrived at in breeding, fattening, and in producing tion, but its effect is of longest duration. Fat food is most milk and wool. fitted for winter, starch and saccharine nourishment for the The chief means of subsistence-grass or hay-provided by

Beverages abounding in alcohol act, as regards the nature for herbivorous animals contains the albuminates, generation of warmth, the quickest of all.

warmth-producing matter, and the nutritive salts in such adIn the animal body a certain number of degrees of warmth, mixture that by their co-presence in the process of digestion and a certain quantum of force (strength), must be daily gene- and nutrition each of these elements produces the full effect rated, according to exterior circumstances, and as the require belonging to it; and when the breeder, who has no hay, but ments of one day or one season are greater than in another ; other fodder, makes up a mixture of food which in its nutriand a right nutrition pre-supposes that those component parts tive capability supplies the place of the missing hay, he in no of the food which serve to nourish and to warm are contained wise alters the nutritive value of the food thus prepared. exactly, or nearly so, in the nutriment in such proportions as In the nutrition of men, however, totally different relations the body requires. An extra amount of warmth-producing are to be taken into account. By preparing his victuals by nourishment could not make up for a paucity of strength means of boiling, baking, roasting, by turning the corn into



flour, man changes not only the condition and the nature of paratus, a careful microscopic examination of it must be his food, but very frequently its composition also ; and, in made in order to learn its geography, in order to be able to many cases, its nutritive value is notably changed by the pro- secure the detection of any special body in it at a later cess of preparation. This is principally effected by the change period. After a cultivation is fairly started, all that remains in the proportion of the nutritive salts which his food contains to be done is to make repeated careful examinations in order in its natural state.

to trace the steps in the development of the bodies under Although the part which these salts play in the process of investigation. digestion, in the formation of blood, and in general assimila

FIG. 1. tion, has been known for more than twenty years, with the most positive certainty (see “Chemical Letters," vol. ii.), it seems as if in practice the knowledge of it were still ignored.

The importance of the albuminates and the heat-generating matters is recognised, it is true ; also that the first, in comparison with the others, have a higher value. It is possible, indeed, in the process of nutrition to supply the place of the heat-generating substances, such as starch, sugar, and fat, by means of meat; but not vice versd, because the heat-generating substances are quite incapable from their composition of serving to aid in the structure of the body, and therefore it may be said that the albuminates possess a pre-eminent value. On the other hand, the nutritive salts, without whose co-operation the albuminates, as well as the heat-generators, would be quite incapable of giving nourishment, are generally hardly taken account of ; and we read long dissertations on food and nutrition in which everything under the sun is spoken of except the nutritive salts, and in whieh even the words “nutritive salts" are not to be found, just as if they had no existence. (To be continued.),

(b) Apparatus for permitting continuous microscopic ob

servations for development, the same preparation remaining SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION INTO THE

for days under the microscope. This consists of two parts

—viz., a thick glass plate, with a deep circular groove CAUSES OF CHOLERA.

ground in it; this groove has (at the opposite extremities (Continued from p. 4.)

of one of its diameters) its edges beveled off in some degree.

(Fig. 2, a.) A thin glass cover, with its edges turned down II. REPORT OF INTERVIEWS WITH PROFESSOR

and fitting into the groove; connected with this cover are DE BARY, AT HALLE.

two tubes (one at either side), allowing the entrance of a

continuous supply of purified air, if this be desired. (Fig.2,6.) De. D. DOUGLAS CUNNINGHAM

FIG. 2.






be of any


First. Some general instructions as to experiments in the cultivation of fungi, and the conclusions to be derived from such experiments.

1. Observations on development in order value must be made frequently, in some cases hourly.

2. Only a very little material should be employed at a time, in order that the field under observation may be clear.

3. One must actually see that a given growth proceeds from a given origin, and not conclude, when two or more forms exist in the same preparation, that they necessarily have a developmental relation to one another, even although at the beginning of the experiment there appeared to be only one kind of element present.

4. As a general rule never believe anything but what is seen, and never found conclusions on mere probabilities.

Second. Apparatuses necessary for experiments on cultiva- In applying this apparatus to practice, the fungi to be tion and development. These Prof. de Bary prefers of as cultivated are placed on the portion of the plate which is simple a nature as possible, considering that the less com- surrounded by the groove. The cover is now fitted on, and plicated any apparatus is the fewer sources of fallacy does the groove and the mouths of the tubes filled with some fluid it involve. The apparatus which he recommends is as so as to secure isolation. The whole apparatus is now placed follows:

on the stage of the microscope, and every step in the de(a) Apparatus for common cultivations.

velopment of the bodies under examination can be followed 1. Means of protection from dust and other foreign bodies. without at any tiine removing them from their position. This consists of three parts—A common glass bason; a bell. (Fig. 2, c.) glass fitting into this ; a small metal stage suitable for bear- As to the microscopic powers necessary in such observaing object-glasses, &c.

tions on the development of fungi, Prof. de Bary considers When the above apparatus is employed the bason is half that, as a general rule, moderate powers are quite sufficient. filled with water, mercury, permanganate of potassium solu- In experiments on development, certain reagents are quite tion, &c. The stage is next placed in it, and the bell-glass indispensable. Those most necessary are (1) ether, (2) abis finally added, so that, dipping into the solution all round, solute alcohol, (3) solution of iodine, (4) glycerine, and (5) it effectually isolates the stage and anything on it from the sulphuric acid. external air. (Fig. 1.)

Third. Cultivations illustrating the employment of apparatus, 2. Means of cultivation : Fluids of various natures suit- as well as the relations which various fungal forms bear to one able, from their chemical constitution, for affording nourish- another. ment to fungi. Object-glasses, watch-glasses, &c., on which 1. Cultivations illustrative of the development of Mucor such fluids, and the fungi to be developed, may be placed. Racemosus. The material cultivated had been obtained Before introducing any preparation into the isolation ap- directly from Prof. Hofmann of Giessen, who is the describer

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