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and to have entered into Syria. He that shall reflect on the truth of the story in Moses, and withal considers the nature of the reports concerning the Hebrews leaving Egypt, in Trogus, Tacitus, and others, will not easily think that any but they are intended. 8. It is evident, that whoever ruled Egypt at the departure of the Israelites, both himself, his whole host, and all the strength of the kingdom, were utterly destroyed. If it be supposed, that those were the Hycsos, and not the Egyptians, and withal as it is said, that the Egyptians in Thebadis always waged war with these Hycsos, and expected an opportunity to recover their liberty, can it be imagined that they would have let go the advantage now put into their hands, when there was no strength left to oppose them. But this, according to the story, they did no way, make use of; but after their destruction and desolation, the Hycsos continued to rule in Egypt 300 years. Wherefore this story, as it is framed by Manetho, and applied by some late learned chronologers, is inconsistent with the writings of Moses; and therefore, with those by whom their sacred authority is acknowledged, it can be no otherwise esteemed, but as a fabulous declaration of that obscure tradition which the Egyptians had so long after, of the Hebrews being in their country, and of the desolation which befel it thereby. Malum habitat in alieno fundo. Had there not been somewhat of real truth in the business, there had been no occasion for this fabulous superstructure. The like account I shall give in its proper place of that other bold, and, to speak plainly, false hypothesis, that many of the Mosaic religious institutions were taken from the usage and customs of the Egyptians in their sacred rites.

§ 14. But, to return; the 019973, or priests, mentioned among the Egyptians, were probably princes of the people at the first. And translators are yet dubious whether they should render the word in these places, priests or princes. At first they were designed by common consent to take care of the sacra, which belonged to the community, which grew into a hereditary office; nor can I give any other probable conjecture concerning them. Appointed they seem to have been to comply with the catholic tradition of sacrificing, or doing something in lieu of it, for the good of the community. And their function continued in principal reputation in after ages, increasing in popular veneration and esteem as superstition increased among them, which was fast enough, until it had even tired itself with its own extravagancies and excess.

§ 15. Besides these Cohanim, there were in Egypt at the same time other sorts of men, whom we call magicians and sorcerers, whose arts or delusions were afterwards generally followed by the priests of other nations; or it may be upon some neglect of the service of their gods, these men pretending to a fa.

men.

miliarity and acquaintance with them, took the office upon themselves, promising supernatural effects in the execution of it. There seem to be three sorts of them expressed, Exod. vii. 11. There are the Dan, Chacamim; and awan, Mecashphim ; and D20977, Chartumim. The Chacamim, which we render wise men, are here distinguished from the Mecashphim, or sora cerers ; but the Chartumim, or magicians, seem to comprise both the other sorts, the Chacamim and Mechashphim. “Now Pharaoh called the wise men and the sorcerers, now the magicians of Egypt they did in like manner with their enchantments.” But Gen. xli. 8. the Chacamim, or wise men, are distinguished from the Chartumim or magicians, as they are here from the Mecashphim, or sorcerers; and therefore we shall consider them distinctly.

The Din are constantly rendered by the LXX. copot, and all other translations are compliant, the word being of a known obvious signification, and commonly taken in a good sense, wise

For they were the men who afterwards, when the contemplation of things secret and hidden first found acceptance and then applause in Greece, were called copos and then pinocopos, But the original of their studies seemed to have been in things magical, curious and diabolical; in which arts philosophy made its last attempt in the world, under Apollonius and some other Pythagoreans, só, like an ignis fatuus, expiring as it began. Wherefore these Chacamim, now of such reputation in Egypt, were such as had separated themselves to the study of curious arts, and the speculation of hidden things, into whose contemplations Satan variously insinuated himself, giving them an esteem and honour among the common people, on the account of their skill in things to them unknown; they gratifying him on the other hand, in promoting his design by superstition and idolatry. This gave them the title of wise men, which yet possibly in the judgment of those who really were só, was confined to their trade and profession; for we hear not of their use on any other occasion, Exod. vii. 11. The LXX. render DOT by copurtat, men subtle to deceive : Hence probably in the expression of what was done by their counsel, Luke useth kataropoda petvos, dealt subtilly, Acts vii. 19.

Those joined in one place with these wise men, are the D'Ivan. The name is originally Hebrew, from 9V), præsti, gias exercuit. The LXX. render it by Paqueaxos

, venefici ; and the Targum by van, præstigiator, jugglers, impostors, and also conjurers. They seem to have pretended unto the revelation or discovery of things secret and hidden; whence the Arabic bwa, signifies to uncover, to reveal, to make known. With such a sort of impostors the world was always péstered. Of old, they were in great reputation, though now they are the scorn of the

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multitude. Probably they had an access to the administration of things sacred, whence the word in the syriac denotes to pray, to administer in things holy, and to sacrifice. The Chartumim are those to whom all magical effects are peculiarly assigned. It doth not appear whether they were a peculiar sect, distinct from the other two, or some of them more eminently skilled in magical operations than the rest. The name is foreign to the sacred language, probably Egyptian, though in use also among the Chaldeans, by whom this diabolical skill and practice was imitated from Egypt. The LXX. render them, Gen. xli. ožnyotes, interpreters, according to the matter in hand, it being the interpretation of the dreams of Pharaoh which was inquired af. ter, wherein also they boasted their skill; Exod. vii. 11. they render it staoidos, incantatores, enchanters. The V. L. omits the name, and to supply that omission, renders n'onda, per incantationes Egyptiacas, by their Egyptian enchantments. Some render it by Genethliaci, which Aben Ezra gives countenance to, on Dan. ii. calling them nigbon On, men skilled in casting nativities, others by malefici, arioli, magi, necromantici, witches, conjurers, magicians. Targum, Dvn: in the common translation, Gen. xli. magistri, without any reason. It is plain and evident that they were a sort of persons who pretended unto a power of miraculous operation, and made use of their skill and reputation in opposition unto Moses. Their chiefs at that time were Jannes and Jambres, mentioned by our apostle, 2 Tim. iii. 8. as they are likewise spoken of in the Talmud, and are joined with Moses by Pliny, as persons famous in magical arts. It is not unlikely but that this sort of men might have been cast under some disgrace, by failing in the interpretation of the dreams of Pharaoh, the knowledge whereof was of so great importance to the whole nation. This being done by Joseph, whose eminent exaltation ensued thereon, it is not improbable but that they bore a peculiar malice towards all the Israelites, being moreover instigated and provoked by the knowledge and worship of the true God that was among them. This made them vigorously engage in an opposition unto Moses, not only in compliance with the king, but, as our apostle speaks, ærteotyOWY, they set themselves against him, which includes more than a mere production of magical effects upon the command of Pharaoh, whereby they attempted to obscure the lustre of his miracles, implying also a sedulous, active, industrious opposition to his whole design.

And besides, whereas they knew that Moses was skilled in all the learning of the Egyptians, and not conceiving at first any peculiar presence of divine power with him, they thought themselves sufficient for the contest, until they were forced by the evidence of his miraculous operations, to acknowledge the energy of a divine power, above what they could imi

tate or counterfeit. The name, as was said, is Egyptian, as was the art they professed. And it is not unlikely but that those which Moses calls 10), Cohanim, were in the Egyptian language called Sunun, Chashmannim, who are mentioned, Psal. Ixviii

. 31. which we render princes, who are said to come out of Egypt, professing subjection to the kingdom of Christ; for the word is Egyptian, and no where else used.

$ 16. Unto these Egyptian artists, two other sorts were added among the Babylonians, Dan. ii. 2. Besides the Chartumim, and Mecashphim, who managed these arts in Egypt, whence their skill and names were derived by the Chaldeans, there were among their wise men DOUX Ashaphim, and Diiva Chasdim also. How these two sorts were distinguished between themselves, or from the other named with them, is altogether unknown. Strabo tells us that the astrologers, magicians and philosophers among the Chaldeans, were called by various names : και γας Ορχηνοι τινες προσαγορευονται, και Βορσιππηνοι, και αλλοι πλειές, lib. 16. Some were called Orcheni, and some Borsippeni; as also there were other sorts of them.' Ashaphim are rendered philosophers, astronomers, astrologers, physicians, merely on conjecture, and not from any signification of the name, which is unknown. The Chasdim, or Chaldeans, seem to have been a sort of people that claimed their pedigree in an especial manner from the first inhabitants of those parts, being the posterity of Chesed the son of Nahor. These probably being overpowered by a confluence of sects of other men, betook themselves unto those curious arts, which afterwards were famous or infamous throughout the world under their name; for the prognostication of future events which they pretended to, is a thing that the world always despised, and yet inquired after. So Strabo describes them: Aφωριστο δ' εν τη Βαβυλονια κατοικια τους επιχωρίοις φιλοσοφους, τους Χαλδαιοις προσαγορευμενους. .

"There is in Babylonia a peculiar place of habitation assigned to philosophers, born in or deriving their race from the country, called Chaldeans.' We may take a brief view of them all in their order expressed, Dan. ii. 2. The first are nu907.

They were those to whom all the magical operations in Egypt are ascribed; and the name itself is Egyptian, though some would have it to be of a Hebrew extract. R. Saadias would derive it from 777, a hole ; and Blux, shut or closed, supposing they gave their answers from a hole in the earth, as the oracle at Dodona out of an oak. Some deduce it from oin, as Avenarius and Menasseh ben Israel ; judging them a sort of persons who used a style, or graving-tool, to cut characters and pictures to work their enchantments by ; see Fuller Miscellan. lib. v. cap. 11. Hottinger, with most probability, conjectures the name to be taken from 7777, which, in the Persian language, still signifies to know, 7 being changed into ,

as is usual. For all such impostors do always represent themselves as persons endued with excellent skill and knowledge, and as such are they by the common people esteemed. They were a sort of people who pretended to supernatural operations by virtue of a hidden power present with them, that is diaboli- cal. The next mentioned are the Ashaphim, distinguished from the Chartumim as another sort and sect, by Vau copula, tive. Aben Ezra renders them by 891971, physicians. Some would have the name the same with the Greek copos, and so a general name for all professors of secret knowledge, and of the causes of things natural. In the Concordance of Rabbi Nathan, swx is 7711n, a secr, a prophet, a prognosticator. The third sort are the Mecasbpbim, from ow, to divine, see 2 Chron. xxxiii. 6. Deut. xviii. Exod. xxii. 17. Maimonides, and many that follow him among the Jews, suppose these to have been such as framing images and pictures of things above, included such powers in them by incantation, as could intercept the influences of the heavenly bodies, and thereby produce rare and wonderful effects, but always hurtful and noxious. Of the Chasdim we have spoken before. He that would further satisfy himself in the nature of the arts they professed, may consult Maimoni, des in More Nebuchim, lib. iii. cap. 37. Polydor. Virgil. de Rerum Incantor, p. 85. Rhodigni. Var. Lec. lib. 9. сар.

23. Sixtus Sinensis Biblioth. Tit. Curio sacrarum Artium libri Danævi de Præstigiatoribus. Kircher. Oed. Tom. ii. Part. 2, Fol. 456. Bangius Cælum Orientale. Perkins of Witchcraft. Delrio. Disquisit. Rerum Magicarum, lib. i. cap. 2. lib. ii. Pclan. in Daniel, cap. 2. ver. 2.° Gierus in Daniel, Agrippa de Occulta Philosophia, &c. Strabo informs us, that in his time they had lost all their skill and arts, and that the remainders of them were only a kind of priests that attended to sacrificing, lib. 17. and says that one Chæremon, who went along with Ælius Gallus, the governor of Egypt, undertaking still to practise these arts, was ridiculous to all for his ignorance and arrogance.

I have diverted to the consideration of these sorts of men, as finding some of them in this space of time before the giving of the law, looked on as those who had more than ordinary acquaintance and intimaey with the deities in common veneration, and were thereon esteemed as priests and sacred. But it is plain that they were such as the devil excited, actuated, and after a sort inspired, to draw off the minds of men from the knowledge and fear of the only true God, and his worship. Wherefore, notwithstanding their pretence of interposing between men and a divine power, (which Satan made use of) from thence to discover things hidden, and to effect marvellous operations; and although at length they became public sacrificers, yet are they

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