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liation for the sins of the people,' doth respect both the office and whole work of the priests of old, in making atonement for sin by expiatory sacrifices. And in ch. iv. 14. the entrance of Christ into heaven is asserted, in opposition to the entrance of the legal high priest into the carnal sanctuary. 2. The help which the Lord Christ gives to us, expressed ch. ii. 18. is founded in, and proceedeth from, the reconciliation or atonement which he is affirmed to have made in the first place, ver. 17. 3. The question under consideration is, whether the oblation of Christ doth in the first place respect God or us; and to prove that it respects us and not God, he cites this testimony of ver. 18. wherein there is no mention of his oblation at all, and omits the preceding words, where his oblation is so described by its effects, as to prove unavoidably that it respected God in the first place. 4. The succour which Christ affords unto them that are tempted, is no act of his priestly office; but it is the act of him who is our priest, and who was, as enabled thereunto by virtue of the reconciliation he had made by his oblation as a priest, so in the discharge of that office he underwent and suffered those things, whereby he is disposed and inclined to put forth his power in our behalf. 5. In chap. iv. 15, 16. the apostle treats not of the oblation of Christ, but of his personal qualification fitting him for his office; and that which he hath a principal eye to, is his intercession, and the fruits of it; and we shall conclude that this is with God, at least until our adversaries can affix some other tolerable sense unto that expression, or make intelligible their new kind of intercession with God for us, by acting his own power and love towards us.

But he yet undertakes to prove, that what is here mentioned is the whole of what Christ doth as a priest for us, his discourse whereof, because it compriseth the substance of all that he bath to plead in this cause, I shall at large transcribe and examine.

§ 19. Ad ea vero illustranda et confirmanda adhibentur ea a D. Auctore qua subjiciuntur initio, cap. v. ut indicat particula enim, qua initium istud, cap. v. cum fine capitis præcedentis connectit. Quare ex illis constare potest quid D. Auctor sibi velit verbis, quatenus ea ad Christum accommodari debent, quæ Grotius hic urget, eaque de causa totum locum adscribemus. Est autem hujusmodi: Non habemus pontificem qui non possit compati infirmitatibus nostris; sed tentatum per omnia secundum similitudinem absque peccato. Accedamus ergo cum fiducia ad thronum gratiæ ut accipiamus misericordiam et gratiam ad opportunum auxilium. Omnis enim Pontifex ex hominibus acceptus pro hominibus constituitur in iis quæ ad (vel apud) Deum, ut offerat dona et victimas pro peccatis; qui possit moderate condolere ignorantibus et errantibus siquidem etiam ipse circundatus est infirmitate, &c. Ubi vides illis, cap. v. verbis, quod pontifex

constituatur in iis que ad Deum ut offerat dona et victimas pro peccatis, nihil in præcedentibus respondere præter illa quod a Christo accepturi simus misericordiam et gratiam ad opportunum auxilium ; quod sit cum nobis tentatis, ac vehementer trepidantibus succurrat et ne malorum pondere pressi tentationi succumbamus, ac peccatorum nostrorum pænam luamus, efficit; aut tunc cum impii suorum scelerum dant panas ipse nos tuetur, et ne cum illis una pernicie involvamur, potestate sua divina intercedit. Quod idem ut vidimus, cap. ii. indicatur in verbis illis ubi expiationis quam Christus apud Deum peragit modus explicatur. At hujusmodi actio circa nos primo versatur non vero circa Deum nisi improprie loquamur.

Answ. 1. I have at large transcribed this whole passage, that we may see what is the only foundation which he builds upon, or argument he hath to prove, that the sacerdotal acts of Christ respect us in the first place, and not God. The whole of what he pleads issues from this single supposition, that the apostle in the beginning of the fifth chapter intends nothing but the confirmation of what he had delivered in the end of the fourth; and therefore that the offering of gifts and sacrifices for sin unto God, is only his giving help and succour unto us in our temptations, which is the most uncouth expression and explication of one thing by another, that ever was in the world. Now this supposition is apparently false; and the connexion of the discourse which he feigneth at pleasure, every way insufficient to force us unto such a fond and brainless exposition of the words. That which alone he pleads in justification of his assertion, is the introduction of this new discourse, by the causal particle yag, for, as though it intimated, that the apostle designed no more but to give a reason of what he had before laid down, concerning the help and succour, which we have in all our temptations and sufferings from our high priest. This indeed he doth also in the description he gives us of the nature and duties of this office, wherein he doth not merely explain what he had before delivered, but adds other considerations also of the nature and acts of that office, confirming our faith and expectation therein; but his principal regard is to the whole subject-matter treated of, as being now to give his reasons, why he doth so industriously instruct them in the doctrine of the priesthood of Christ. And this use of the same particle in his transitions from one thing to another, wherein it respects not so much what immediately went before in particular, as the relation of what ensues to his whole design, and is also sometimes redundant, we have manifested by sundry instances in our exposition. Wherefore the apostle having occasionally digressed from the priesthood of Christ, which he had proposed unto consideration in the end of the second chapter, through the third and unto the 14th verse of the fourth, he there returns again to

his first design. And this he doth by declaring in general the glory of Christ as a priest, his eminency above those of the order of Aaron, and the spiritual advantage which we receive, not from his being a priest, but from his being such a person, so qualified in the discharge of his office, as he is there by him described. Having expressed this in the last verses of the 4th chapter, and thereby stirred up the Hebrews to a diligent attention to what he had to instruct them in with respect hereunto, in the beginning of the fifth, he lays the foundation of all his subsequent discourses about the priesthood and sacrifice of Christ. This he does by a general description of that office, and of its duties, with what belongs essentially thereto in all that are partakers thereof; adding some particular instances of the imperfections that attended it in the priests under the law, making application of the former to Jesus Christ, and discarding the consideration of the latter. As, therefore, in the end of the fourth chapter, he prepares the way to his intended declaration of the nature and duties of the sacerdotal office of Christ, by declaring in general the advantage we have, from the susception of that office by him who was the Son of God incarnate; so here, in the beginning of the fifth, he adds a description of the power, acts, and duties of that office, whence our benefits by it do originally arise. There is therefore no such coherence between these passages, as should warrant us to look on Christ's helping and assisting of them that are tempted, to be the same, with his offering gifts and sacrifices to God. Yea, suppose that the apostle in these words doth only give the reason of what he had before asserted, which is all that is pleaded by Crellius to impose this nonsensical sense upon us, yet thereby also his pretension would be everted. For the reason of any thing differs from the thing itself. And if he proves only that we may have help and succour from Christ as our high priest, on this ground, that every priest doth offer gifts and sacrifices for sin, it doth not follow, that his helping of us, and his offering of sacrifice, are the same, yea it follows that they are distinct and different, the latter being given in as one reason and cause of the former. 2. What is here farther discoursed, concerning our deliverance by the power and care of Christ from sin and destruction, even then when wicked and impenitent persons shall be utterly destroyed, is true; but yet it is not his offering of sacrifice unto God for sin, but it is a consequent thereof. The consideration of it is indeed a matter of great consolation and encouragement to believers, but it is not to be asserted to the exclusion of that, which is the fountain of all the And now it may

benefits which we receive by his mediation. be considered whether any thing be here offered by this author, either to prove that we are the first object of all the sacerdotal

actings of Christ, or in answer unto the testimonies alleged that God alone is so. But he hath yet somewhat more to add, and therefore proceeds. Animadvertendum autem est in loco utroque, sed apertius in posteriori ob (1) allusionem ad sacerdotium legale et similitudinem quandam qua Christo cum pontificibus Aaronicis intercedat, (2) ad Christum etiam accommodari infirmitatem, quæ in pontificibus istis exstitit, quaque ii impelli debuerint ad aliorum infirmitates tanto promptius expi andas; cum tamen in Christo quippiam alterius generis infirmitatibus illis, quæ nihil aliud erant quam lapsus et ignorantiæ seu delicta ex infirmitate profecta, opponatur, nempe tentationes seu afflictiones ipsius, quarum memor, nobis tentatis atque afflictis succurrere tanto promptius soleat.

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Answ. 1. This man seems to aim at nothing, but how he may evade the force of truth, and thereon lays hold of every appearing advantage, though indeed contradicting himself therein. For in the entrance of his production of these testimonies, he tells us, that they are such places as wherein the apostle, neglecting the allusion unto the priesthood of old, doth plainly and openly declare the nature of that of Christ.' But here, in pressing of those testimonies, he pleads the express mention of that allusion as the principal reason of his exposition.' 2. It is not true, that those infirmities of the priests of old, which consisted in their sins and ignorances, are any way accommodated unto Christ. The things here spoken of the nature of the priests' office, and the discharge of it by them with whom it was intrusted, are distributed unto the subjects intended according to their capacity. In the priests of old there were such infirmities, as that they had need to offer for their own sins also; in Christ there was no such thing, nor any thing that answered thereunto. But in all priests there were infirmities, such as inseparably attend our human nature in this mortal life, and these our high priest Christ Jesus was subject to, whence he was liable to be tempted and suffer. These the apostle doth not accommodate to Christ, but really ascribes unto him, see ver. 7, 8. with our exposition. 3. This one concession of Crellius, that Christ our high priest, that is, as our high priest, was subject to temp. tations and sufferings, which he must be, or there is no similitude between him and the high priests of old in this matter of infirmities, utterly overthrows his whole cause; for he was no way subject unto them, but as, and whilst he was in this world. His glorified nature in heaven is liable neither to temptations nor sufferings. If, therefore, any of these infirmities were found in him as our high priest, which the apostle expressly affirms, and Crellius acknowledgeth, he was our high priest whilst he was on the earth. But he adds,

(1) Ex quo apparet peccatis etiam illorum quos pontifices Aaronici

expiare debebant, tentationes atque afflictiones nostras his locis respondere, quarum vis, (2) Quam ad nos perdendos habent dum tollitur et ab iis nos auxilio Christi eripimur, peccata nostra expiari dicuntur. (3) Itaque non mirum est cætera quoque quæ de Aaronicis Sacerdotibus dicuntur, alio sensu ad Christum accommodari, et quædam de illis, de Christo improprie præstantiori tamen sensu accipi.

Answ. 1. Where there is any mention made of the offering of Christ for us, it is constantly with respect to our sins, and not to our temptations and sufferings, at least not in the first place. What he is affirmed to do with respect to them, as to the aid, relief, and deliverance which he gives us, is all consequential to his once offering of himself to take away sin. 2. The foundation of the inference which is here made, we have already taken away; namely, that the sinful infirmities of the priests of old, were accommodated unto Christ with respect to natural infirmities, or obnoxiousness unto temptations and sufferings; which we have shewed to be false. Yet hence he would infer that the sins of the people of old, for which the priests offered sacrifice, do correspond in this matter with our temptations and sufferings; that as they offered sacrifices for real sins, so Christ's sacrifice is our relief from temptations and sufferings. The force of the reason pretended lies in this, that because the priests of the order of Aaron had sins themselves, therefore they offered sacrifices for the sins of the people, those which were truly and really so. But whereas the Lord Christ had no sins of his own, but only temptations and sufferings, therefore the sins offered for were temptations and sufferings. Nothing can be more absurdly imagined. For both those qualifications, that he had no sin, and that he was tempted, were necessary to his offering for us, and for our sins; being made sin for us, and sent in the likeness of sinful flesh, yet without sin, he condemned sin in the flesh, bearing our sins in his body on the tree. 2. Is this all, therefore, that the great discourses of Crellius concerning the expiatory sacrifice of Christ, his being a propitiation for our sins, his offering himself unto God for us, with the like magnificent expressions of sacerdotal actings, do amount unto; namely, that he frces us by his power from temptations and afflictions, with all the efficacy they have to destroy us? Is this, I say, to offer himself to God a true, perfect, complete expiatory sacrifice? Were it not much better wholly to deny that Christ was a high priest, or that he ever offered himself to God, than to put such strained and futilous senses on these expressions? And, 3. Because these men will have it so, all things must be spoken properly of the Aaronical priests, though they were umbratile, typical, figurative, temporary, and liable to such infirmities as exceedingly eclipsed the glory of the office itself. But all things spoken of the Lord Christ to the same purpose,

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