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there is in coming to a right and full understanding of it. All these things justify a special and peculiar inquiry into this doctrine of the priesthood of Christ.
§ 3. Now although our apostle in the excellent method which he has adopted, delivers to us all the material concerns of this sacred office of Christ, yet he has not done it in an entire discourse, but in such a way as his subject matter and principal design would admit of, and indeed as it required. He does not in any one place, nor upon any one occasion, express and teach the whole of the doctrine concerning it; but, as himself speaks in another case, torupigws xao tronurgonews, by various parts or degrees, and in sundry ways, he declares the several concerns of it. For this he did partly as the Hebrews could bear it; partly as the series of his discourse led him to the mention of it, having another general end in view; and partly, as was requisite, for the explanation of the old Aaronical institutions and ordinances, which for the benefit of those who still adhered unto them he aimed at. To have undertaken the consideration of the whole subject, in the exposition of any particular passage, would have interrupted the reader's attention to the scope of the apostle, by the length of the digression. And had 'I insisted on the several parts of it as they occur, I should have been necessitated to a frequent repetition of the same things; and in neither way could I have given an entire representation of it, by which the beauty and the symmetry of the whole might be made evident. This therefore inclined me in the first place to comprise a summary of the entire doctrine concerning it, in these previous exercitations. From hence, as the reader may take a prospect of it singły by itself, so he may if he please, carry much insight with him from it, into the most abstruse passages in the whole epistle. And this, added to what we have discoursed on Ch. i. 2. concerning the kingly right and power of Christ, will give a more full and complete account of these his two offices, than, it may be, hath as yet been attempted by any.
$ 4. Moreover, the doctrine concerning the priesthood and sacrifice of the Lord Christ, hath in all ages. by the craft and malice of Satan, been either directly opposed, or variously corrupted. For it contains the principal foundation of the faith and consolation of the church, which are by him chiefly maligned. In how many things, and by how many ways, it hath been obscured and depraved in the Papacy, is generally known:Some of these corruptions we have occasion to consider in our 'exposition of many passages of the epistle: For they have not so much directly opposed the truth of the doctrine, as disbeliev. ing the use and benefit of the thing itself to the church; they have subsituted various false and superstitious observances to ef.
feet the end for which this priesthood of Christ alone is designed of God. These, therefore, I shall no otherwise consider, but as their opinions and practices occasionally occur to us, either in these exercitations, or in the exposition ensuing. But there is a generation of men, whom the craft of Satan hath stirred up in this and the foregoing age, who have made it a great part of their preposterous and pernicious endeavours about religion, to overthrow this whole office of the Lord Christ, and the efficacy of the sacrifice of himself depending thereon. This they have attempted with much subtilty and diligence, by introducing a metaphorical or imaginary priesthood and sacrifice in their room. Thus they would rob the church of its princi, pal treasure, and pretend to supply the use of it from their own fancies. The Socinians are the persons to whom I refer. And there are more reasons than one, why I could not omit a strict examination of their reasonings and objections against this great part of the mystery of the gospel. The reputation of parts, industry, and learning, which the bold curiosity of some hath given to them, makes it necessary, at least upon proper occasions, to obviate the insinuation of the poison of their religious tenets, the circulation of which is promoted by their reputation for learning. Besides, there are not few, even among ourselves, who embrace and do endeavour to propagate their opinions. And the same course, though their faces seem to look another way, is steered by the Quakers, who have at last openly espoused almost all their pernicious tenets ; in some things indeed, they as yet obscure their sentiments in cloudy ex, pressions, through want either of will or skill to make a more perspicuous declaration of them. And there are others, also, pretending to more sobriety than those before mentioned, who do yet think that these doctrines concerning the offices and media. tion of Christ, are, if not unintelligible by us, yet not of any great necessity to be insisted on. Such is the esteem in which the mysteries of the gospel are held by some, yea, by many among us. With respect to all these, and for the edification of those that are sober and godly, I esteemed it necessary to handle this whole doctrine of the priesthood of Christ, distinctly and previously to our exposition of the uses of it, as they occur in the epistle.
$ 5. There are also various things which may illustrate this doctrine, and be useful in the explication of the terms, notions, and expressions which are used in the declaration of it, that cannot directly and orderly be reduced under any single text in the epistle. Many dawnings there were in the world, before the rising of this sun of righteousness. Many preparations for the actual exhibition of this high priest for the discharge of his office. And some of these tend greatly to instruct us in the
nature of this priesthood, as being appointed of God for that purpose. Such was the use of sacrifices, ordained from the foundation of the world, or from the first entrance of sin; and the designation of persons in the church to the office of a figurative priesthood, for the offering of these sacrifices. By these God intended to instruct the church, in the nature and benefit of what he would after accomplish, in and by his Son Jesus Christ. What belonged then to the rite of sacrificing, and to the Mosaic priesthood, must be taken into consideration, as retaining yet that light in them, which God had designed them to communicate. And indeed our apostle himself refers many of the instructions which he gives us in the nature of the priesthood and sacrifice of Christ, to those institutions which were designed of old to typify and represent them. Besides all these, in the common usages of mankind, there may be found traces of this office, and of the discharge of it in general, which deserve our consideration. For although all who were left out of the church's inclosure, through their own blindness, and the craft of him who originally seduced them into an apostasy from God, had, as to their own interest and practice, miserably depraved every thing that belonged to the worship or service of a divine being; yet they still carried along with theni 'something which had its origin in divine revelation, and which had a congruity to the inbred principles of nature. In these also, where we can separate the wheat from the chaff, what was from divine revelation, or the light of nature, from what was of diabolical delusion or vain superstition; we may discover what is useful and helpful unto us in our design. By these means we may be enabled to reduce all sacred truth in this matter to its proper principles, and direct it to its proper end. For these reasons, though we shall have frequent occasion to insist on this office of Christ, with the proper acts and effects of it, in our ensuing exposition; yet I thought meet to handle the whole doctrine of it apart in preliminary discourses. And let not the reader suppose, that he shall be imposed on with the same things handled in several ways, twice over. For as the design of the exposition is to open the words of the text, to give their sense, with the purpose and arguings of the apostle, applying all to the improvement of our faith and obedience, whereof nothing will here fall under our consideration; so what may be here discoursed historically, philologically, dogmatically, or eristically, will admit of no repetition or rehearsal in the expository part of our endeavours. These things being premised, as was necessary, we now proceed to the work before us.
8 6. Our Lord Jesus Christ is prophesied of in the Old Testament, under the nsme of 1973 Cohen: Psal. cx. 4. 1712 nnx BwThou art Cohen for ever. And Zech. vi. 13. 7771 'XD2 by 103-and he shall be Cohen upon his throne. We render it in both places a priest, that is, isgsus, Sacerdos. In the New Testament, that is in this epistle, he is frequently said to be isqeus and aexiegevs, which we likewise express by priest and high-priest; Pontifex, Pontifex Maximus. · The meaning of these words must be first inquired into.
$ 7.7072 the verb is used only in Pihil, Cihen: and it signifies Sacerdotio fungi, or Munus Sacerdotale Exercere; to be a priest, or to exercise the office of the priesthood ; isgegyew. The LXX. mostly render it by regatevw, which is Sacerdotio Fungor, to exercise the priestly office; although it be also used in the inauguration or consecration of a person to the priesthood. Once they translate it by autreyiw, I Chron. xi. 23. in sacris operari, to serve and minister in or about sacred things. 'ligaeyens is used by our apostle in this sense, and applied to the preaching of the gospel, Εις τα ειναι με λειτοργον Ιησου Χριστου εις τα εθνη. jigsey8YTA TO SURVYENsov Ts Ois, Rom. xv. 16. Here it means Employed in the sacred ministration of the gospel. He useth both deityçyos and isexeyew metaphorically, with respect to the rigor Pocz or sacrifice which he made of the Gentiles, which was also metaphorical. And ingateuw is used by Luke with respect to the service in the Jewish temple, chap. i. 8. for originally both the words have respect unto proper sacrifices. Some would have the word 7073 to be ambiguous, and to signify officio fungi, aut ministrare in sacris aut politicis; to discharge an office, or to minister, either in things sacred or political. But no instance can be produced of its use to this purpose. Once it seems to be applied unto things not sacred: Isa. lxi. 10. 780 1773 7nn). “ As a bridegroom decketh himself with ornaments ;" or adorneth himself with beauty, that is beautiful garments. If the word did originally and properly signify to adorn, it might thence be applied to the exercise of the office of the priesthood, seeing the priests therein were by special institution to be clothed with garments non 7035 Exod. xxviii. 40. for glory and for beauty. So the priests of Moloch were called Chemarim, from the colour of their garments, or their countenances made black with the soot of their fire and sacrifices. But this is not the
proper signification of the word. But as the priesthood was to be exercised in beautiful garments and sundry ornaments, the word was thence employed to express adorning. The LX-X. render it by tigesiones, but withal acknowledge somewhat sacerdotal in the expression; ως νυμφιο περιεθηκε μοι μισεων και (that is God) hath put on me a mitre as on a bridegroom," which was a sacerdotal ornament. And Aquila, as a bridegroom, inque Tivopeeves ots@aww, bearing the crown of the priesthood, or discharging the priest's office in a crown. And the Targum, observing the peculiar application of the word in this place, adds
127 NMD1, and as an high priest is adorned. All agree that an allusion is made to the garments and ornaments of the high priest. The place may be rendered, As a bridegroom, He (that is God the bridegroom of the church) doth consecrate me with glory," gloriously set me apart for himself
. The word 1073 therefore is sacred; and though it is sometimes transferred to signify other persons, as we shall see afterwards ; yet 1973 properly' is only used in a sacred sense.
$ 8. The Arabic 177 Cahan is to divine, to prognosticate, to be a soothsayer, to foretel; and 77783 Caahan is a diviner, a prophet, an astrologer, a figure caster. It came to be used in these last senses, after the priests had generally taken themselves to such arts, partly curious, partly diabolical, by the instigation of the false gods to whom they ministered. Homer puts them together, as they came afterwards mostly to be the same.
Ana serye on Lorrain epsorpcy na isgerae
Η και ονειροπολον. A prophet, or a priest, or an interpreter of dreams. To the same purpose we read in Ηerodotus, Μαγες και αστρονομες τε και θυτας LLETETEM TETO, Herod. lib. 4. He sent for magicians, astronomers, and priests'; for Suras is a priest. The priests first gave out oracles and divinations in the temples of their gods; and from them proceeded a generation of impostors, who exceedingly infatuated the world, with a pretence of foretelling things to come, of interpreting dreams, and with doing things uncouth and strange, to the amazement of the beholders. And as they all pretended to derive their skill and power from the gods, whose priests they were, so they invented or had suggested to them by Satan, various ways and means of divination, or of attaining the knowledge of particular future events. From those ways to which any of them were chiefly addicted, they derived their names.
Generally they were called Dign, wise men, as those of Egypt, Gen. xli. 8. and of Babylon, Dan. ii. 12, 13. Hence we render receyos, the followers of their arts, wise men, Matt. ii. 1. Among the Egyptians they were divided into two sorts, Dino77 and davon, Exod. vii. 11.; the head of one -sort, probably in the days of Moses, being Jannes, and of the other Jambres, 2 Tim. iii. 8. We call them magicians and sorAmong the Babylonians there is mention of these, and
, , , - Dan. ii. 2. Of the difference and distinction among these, we shall treat afterwards. From this practice of the generality of priests, did 1073 come to signify to soothsay or divine.
9. 103 is then a priest. And he who was first called so in the Scripture, probably in the world, was Melchisedec, Gen, xiv, 18. On what account he was so called, shall be afterwards
,כשרים and אשפים ,two sorts more are added unto them