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valued at two millions one hundred thousand pounds sterling. Various names; over a hundred among the Chinese : e.g., Black-Souchong, Pekoe, Bohea, Congou ; Green - Singlo, Hyson, Gunpowder. When first introduced, was frequently cooked and served up as a vegetable ; its proper use then unknown.


I. Description of Qualities, Appearance, &c. POSSESSES a strong unpleasant odour; bitter, nauseous taste ; brownish colour. A vegetable product; leaves of a plant. Name probably derived from Tabac in S. Domingo (whence first imported into Europe), or from the tabac, the instrument used by the Indians in smoking it; called also Nicotia, from Nicot, the French ambassador, who brought it from Portugal into Paris; hence our adjective nicotian.

II. The Plant. A large branching herb; many different species ; the two principal, Virginian and Green tobacco the former the larger and finer plant. Stem, from three to six feet in height. Large leaves, about two feet long, of pale green colour, covered with small hairs; bears pretty pink flowers, but these are removed to perfect the leaves.

III. Localities of Production. A native of America ; very anciently grown in China ; now cultivated over a large portion of the globe.


a. In Europe. Raised in many countries Hungary, Germany, France, Holland, Spain, Belgium. Chief manufactory at Seville.

b. In Asia. — Turkey, Persia, India, China, Java, Philippine Islands, Ceylon, Australia, and New Zealand.

c. In Africa.-Egypt, Algeria, the Canaries, Cape of Good Hope, and districts of the interior.

d. In America. - Produced most extensively in the United States; also in Canada, New Brunswick, Mexico, Brazil; Cuba, and other West Indian Islands. Best from Cuba.

The market price of the various kinds differs, that of Cuba being eighteen-pence, and of Canada only four-pence à pound. Best in Asia, from Latakia (Laodicea) and Manilla in the Philippines.

IV. Propagation, Cultivation, and Gathering. An annual ; grown in fields or plantations ; land prepared in March and April; seed sown mixed with lettuce or mustard seed ; these plants serve as protection from the fly ; how ? Generally planted near a river; in a light soil. Leaves change to a yellowish-brown colour as they ripen and harvest approaches. In August, plants cut down with sharp knives; stems split; exposed to the sun upon the hills ; dried ; gathered into bundles ; packed in cases for exportation.

V. Manufucture: the Process and Results. Principally manufactured into three articles (1) tobacco, (2) cigars, and (3) snuff.

1. Tobacco is sold under various names, and in different forms. The leaves roughly broken called kanaster, from canastra, a basket, in which it is exported :- shag, the midribs of the leaves removed ;


pressed and cut into shreds :- bird's eye, similar to shag, but contains the midrib:- twist, moistened with treacle; beaten till soft ; twisted into a kind of rope or cord ; called also pig-tail and roll. Largely adulterated with sugar, gum, cabbages, salt, saltpetre, peat, yellow ochre, &c.

2. Cigars. — Made from the dry leaves without their midribs ; sprinkled with saltpetre; why? Rolled into a cylindrical form ; covered with fine leaves free from thick fibres ; hence Dutch tobacco leaves exported to Cuba and North America for that purpose.

3. Snuff. – Leaves fermented; powdered ; moistened with salt and water ; packed in close tin

Sold in two forms, dry and moist. More than five hundred manufacturers, and nearly a hundred and fifty thousand retail dealers, in the United Kingdom.

VI. Uses. Used chiefly for three purposes -(a) chewing, (6) smoking, and (c) snuffing.

a. Chewing. - A filthy and disgusting habit practised mostly in Europe among sailors, who have few opportunities of smoking ; very general in America, especially in the Southern and Western States.

b. Smoking. - This practice is very prevalent in England, also throughout Europe, China, India, and Turkey. Supposed to have been introduced into England by Sir Walter Raleigh (relate anecdote of his servant). Greatly opposed by both civil and ecclesiastical authorities. Most hurtful ; produces effects similar to opium and other narcotics, but in a less degree - nausea, paralysis and torpor, vomiting, weakness, loss of appetite and indigestion. Termed

by King James I. “a custom loathsome to the eye, hateful to the nose, harmful to the brain, and dangerous to the lungs." In England an average of nineteen ounces per person consumed annually of what is well called

“Filth of the mouth and fog of the mind:

Africa with all her foison

Boasts no more pernicious poison." c. Snuffing.-A dirty habit, happily less common than formerly; prejudicial to health ; destroys the sense of smell; changes the tone of the voice ; impairs the digestion.

VII. Lessons. Elicit from the children that it is our duty to avoid these practices ; not in youth to contract habits which in after life we may in vain endeavour to break through. To resist them

1. On account of health : as injurious to that which we are morally bound to preserve.

2. As habits of self-indulgence : contrary to the self-restraint and denial we are to observe.

3. As useless expenditure: waste of time and money ; the expense of cigars, pipes, tobacco, &c., carefully applied, would supply many comforts and necessaries in sickness and old age.

4. As a social duty: these habits most disagreeable to others, and to many an intolerable nuisance.

5. As disreputable: they neither confer the manliness nor independence which many young men suppose, but are indeed too often the signs of idle and dissipated lives.

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I. Appearance, Structure, 8c. RESEMBLES a quadruped generally in its covering, internal structure, and being viviparous), but in the air a bird (possessing wings and the power of Alight). Body covered with fur of a yellowish brown or grey colour. Forearms long; fingers longer; covered with skin (a soft, delicate membrane); has the power of extending this to form wings; the bones something like those of a man's hand; hence cheiroptera, from Greek cheir, a hand, and ptera, a wing-hand-winged. Thumb at end of each wing, with a hooked nail, used in hanging. Wings, the most acute organ of touch. Small eyes ; large

Many varieties ; upwards of two hundred have been enumerated ; twenty species found in Great Britain-among others the common bat, the great bat, the serotine, mouse-coloured, long-eared, horse-shoe, &c.


II Regions where found. Most numerous in tropical countries. Common bat found in roofs of houses, church towers, caverns, hollow trees, and holes of rocks - in Great Britain and Continental countries;

Vampire, in South America, Chili, West Indies, New Caledonia, the Isle of Bourbon; Java.

III. Food, Habits, &c. Food varies; some feed on insecte, caterpillars,

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