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I. Description of Appearance, Qualities, 8c. NAME derived from Cyprus, whence the Greeks first obtained it. Latin name, cuprum. Colour, red; lustrous; malleable ; ductile ; a pound can be made to reach over a mile and a quarter ; very sonorous and tenacious ; lightest of metals except iron and tin ; good conductor of heat.

II. Districts producing the Ore.* Found extensively in the British Isles mines situated in Anglesea (Amlwch), Cumberland, Staffordshire, Derbyshire, Devon, Cornwall (upwards of eighty; produce, annually, some a hundred, others fifteen hundred tons), Ireland, Isle of Man; Siberia; Spain, Saxony, Russia, Sweden; Morocco, Nigritia; North America (Fahlun), Canada near the lakes Superior and Huron ; Brazil, Chili ; Cuba, Jamaica ; Australia (Burra-Burra), New Zealand.

Every place mentioned in this and the succeeding lessons is to be found upon the map.



III. Process of Preparation. Ore obtained by mining; removed to the surface, and broken into small pieces; “ best ore" separated from the inferior ; crushed under large hammers or in mills or “grinders" (machines consisting of heavy revolving rollers); passed through sieves ; washed in large cisterns. Sold to the smelters; smelting performed chiefly at Swansea ; fuel cheap and accessible; ready means of export and plentiful supply of a valuable return cargo for vessels bringing the ore. Smelting consists of about ten different processes. The metal produced in various forms

- ingots, slabs, sheets, &c. Devon and Cornwall export the ore to South Wales. Copper is exported from Swansea, London, Liverpool, &c.

IV. Uses to which the Metal is applied. Copper ranks in utility next to iron ; enters largely into our manufactures at Birmingham, Sheffield, and Bristol.

Notice a few of its more common uses.

1. In household utensils -- coppersmiths' goods ; require to be kept very clean ; verdigris injurious to man.

2. For coinage ; copper coins of small value. 3. In making pins ; brass wire.

4. Copper-plates for engraving. Notice the pleasure and enjoyment derived from beautiful prints.

5. Sheathing, fastenings and cables for ships.

6. Boilers for locomotive and other engines ; vats, &c.

7. Useful alloys - bruss (copper and zinc), bronze and bell-metal (copper and tin), pinchbeck and tombac (brass and copper).

V. Statistics.

The Swansea district contains nearly six hundred furnaces ; consuming five hundred thousand tons of coal per annum ; employing four thousand hands ; weekly wages amount to about four thousand pounds. Twenty tons of coal consumed in producing one of copper. Value per ton, from five

ten pounds.


I. Description of Appearance, Qualities, gc. A PRECIOUS metal; yellow mineral ; very soft ; lustrous ; heavy; exceedingly malleable. (Illustrations : a grain can be beaten out to cover fiftysix square inches, or two and three quarter miles, of silver wire ; the gold of a guinea would reach nine and a half miles if beaten to extreme thinness, or cover eight miles of wire.) A perfect metal ; tenacious ; a good conductor of heat ; insoluble in water; found as an ore, alloyed with copper, silver, and iron; also in alluvial soil, in scales, grains, lumps ; e. g., a lump of twentysix pounds' weight found in Siberia in 1826.

II. Countries where found. Very widely diffused ; e.g., in (a) Europe Hungary, Lead Hills (Scotland), small quantities ; (6) Asia - Ural Mountains, Siberia, Sumatra, Bornéo, Celebes ; (c) Australia - Ballarat, Bendigo, Mount Alexander, The Ovens; (d) Africa -- Mozambique, Zanguebar ; (e) America - Mexico,

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