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to remember with those full and dis a tenderness of prophetic feeling, are tioct impressions which early events apt to take the alarm rather suddenly. always leave on the memory: And I At length, about 1788 or 1789, we can without the least bazard of con- 'got to five o'clock; and with five tradiction assert, that our tradesmen o'clock commenced the æra of fraudunow live in a way, which 40 years ago lent bankruptcies, of men breaking would have been reckoned not only for balf a million, who pever had dangerous to their.credit, but to their been boné fide worth the interest of understanding. I will quote only one that sum. Then came among us that ipstance :--If, in 1777, a tradesman precious Pandora's box, of accomhad invited his friends to dine with modation bills, for wbich there were him at six o'clock (which meaos se regular offices, and a regular manuven), I appeal to all who can remem- facture carried on. All the satisfacber that period, whether he would not. tion, however, was, that the gentlehave risked either a commission of met who carried on this kind of trade, bankruptcy,ora commission oflunacy? and carried themselves into the Gae The latter, I am inclined to think, zette, disdained to dine before. five would bave been the first suggestion; o'clock; and although their creditors and remembering the modes of life, found very little in their warehouses and the general sentiments of the that could be turned into money, they times, I have no doubt that the ex. foued their cellars well stocked with clamation would have been, “He is French wines of the most prime vinsurely mad, who would wait for bis tages ; and with this, and the service of dinner till six o'clock !"
plate, the carriage, and the country I mention this instance, Sir, be, house, they very often were able to cause I mean to insist upon it as a get together a dividend of two-andgood criterion of a man's affairs; and ninepence in the pound! This was a therefore a proper subject for the matter of great relief to the assigneess consideration of the Noble and Learn- for it was the last as well as the first, ed Lord who presides over the affairs and consequently these useful agents of Bankrupts. Where certain effects were released from their caros alınost follow certain causes, the connexion as soon as they had entered upon them, inust be allowed ; and although I may These things, Sir, were the prorisk the imputation of being an old duce of five o'clock dinners! We are fashioned fellow, or an old-fashioned now got to six o'clock, and even to Quiz, whose notions are as antiquated seven o'clock; and we average in as the flaps of his waistcoat, or the bankruptcies between 40 and 50 per cock of his hat, yet I have no hesita. week. This all comes of late dining tion iņ declaring, in the face of open I have a right to say so.
When day, and in the columns of the Gen certain circumstances, go hand in tleman's Magazine, that Late Din. hand, and seem inseparable, I have a ners and Bankruptcies have gone hand rigbt to conclude that there is a conin hand.
nexion between them. Whether this I do not make this assertion on connexion can be dissolved by any slight grounds. Forty years ago the new law, is a question I shall not dismost reputable Citizen of London But of this I am certain, that dined betwixt two and three 'o'clock the new law, be wbat it will, can
I will not say 'how his table was have little effect, if the Commiss provided.—but I will say, there was sioners do not, in addition to all other no plateau running down the centre, necessary researches, particularly inThere were no beatben gods in butter, quire at what bour the bankrupt was and no British heroes in barley-sugar. accustomed to dine i With nie this For some years the above hours were would be decisive; and if I could find the regular ones; and a Gazette, ex auy tradesman who kept his guests hibiting more than four or five bank. starving till seven o'clock, I should, rupts, was a rarity: At length we without any hesitation, deny him his passed from three o'clock to four, certificate. and there made so vigorous a stand, I am, Sir, begging your allowance that, although there was a correspond. for the length of my epistle, your ing increase in the list of bankrupts, humble servant, and one of your there was nothwg very alarming, un oldest Readers, less to fellows like myself, who, from
Mr. SOUTHEY'S Apology for his injudiciously chosen; and it was treated “ Wat Tyler."
as might be expected by a youth of In a Letter addressed to
twenty, in such times, who regarded WILLIAM SMITH, Esq. M.P.
only one side of the question. There is
no other misrepresentation. The senti[Of this publication the following are ments of the historical characters are the leading passages.]
correctly stated. Were I now to drama"FOR the book itself (Wat Tyler), I tize the same story, there would be
deny that it is a seditious per much to add, but little to alter. I formance ; for it places in the mouths should not express those sentiments less of the personages who are introduced, strongly; but I should oppose to them nothing more than a correct statement more enlarged views of the nature of of their real principles. That it is a man and the progress of society. I mischievous publication, I know; the should set forth with equal force the operrors which it contains being especially pressions of the feudal system, the exdangerous at this time. Therefore I cesses of the insurgents, and the treachcame forward without hesitation to avow ery of the Government ; and bold up it; to claim it as my own property,
the errors and crimes which were then which bad never been alienated; and to committed, as a warning for this and suppress it. And I am desirous that my for future ages. I should write as a motives in thus acting should not be man, not as a stripling; with the same misunderstood. The piece was written heart, and the same desires, but with a under the influence of opinions which I ripened understanding and competent have long since outgrown, and repeated stores of knowledge. ly disclaimed, but for which I have never “ In my productions Mr. William affected to feel either sbame or contri. Smith may have seen expressed an erition ; they were taken up conscienti thusiastic love of liberty, a detestation of pusly in early youth, they were acted tyranny wherever it exists; and, in whatupon in disregard of all worldly consi. ever form, an ardent abhorrence of all derations, and they were left bebind in wicked ambition, and a sympathy not the same straight-forward course, as I less ardent with those who were enadvanced in years. It was written when gaged in war for the defence of their Republicanism was confined to a very country, and in a righteous cause,-feel. small number of the educated classes ; ings just, as well as generous in themwhen those who were known to enter selves. He might have perceived also, tain such opinions were exposed to per- frequent indications, that, in the opinion sonal danger from the populace; and of the youthful writer, a far happier when a spirit of anti-Jacobinism was system of society was possible than any predominant, which I cannot character- under which mankind are at present exise more truly than by saying, that it isting, or ever have existed since the pawas as unjust ana intolerant, though not triarchal ages, -and no equivocal aspiquite so ferocious, as the Jacobinism of rations after such a state. In all this he the preseut day.
might have seen something that was er. “In my youth, when my stock of roneous, and more that was visionary; knowledge consisted of such an ac but nothing that savoured of internquaintance with Greek and Roman His- perance or violence. I insist, therefore, tory as is required in the course of regu- that inasmuch as Wat Tyler may differ lar scholastic education, when my heart in character from these works, the difwas full of Poetry and Romance, and ference arises necessarily from the naLucan and Akenside were at my tongue's ture of dramatic composition. I mainend, I fell into the political opinions tain that this is the inference which which the French Revolution was then must be drawn by every honest and judiscattering througbout Europe; and fol. cious mind, and I affirm that such an lowing those opinions with ardour, inference would be strictly conformable wherever they led, I soon perceived that to the fact. inequalities of rank were a light evil “ Do not, however, Sir, suppose that compared to the inequalities of property, I shall seek to shrink from a full avowal and those more fearful distinctions of what my opinions have been : neither which the want of moral and intellectual before God or man am I ashamed of culture occasions between roan and man. them. I have as little cause for bumiAt that time, and with those opinions, liation in recalling them, as Gibbon had, or rather feelings (for their root was in when he related how he had knelt at the the heart, and not in the understanding), feet of a Confessor : for while I imbibed I wrote Wat Tyler, as one who was impa- the Republican opinions of the day, I tient of all the oppressions that are escaped the Atheism and the leprous imdone under the Sun,' The subject was morality which generally accompanied
them. I cannot, therefore, join with oppression are disappearing even in Beattie in blessing
those countries which bave improved the hour when I escaped the the least; nor can it be much longer wrangling crew,
endured, that the extremes of ignorance, From Pyrrho's maze, and Epicurus' sty;" wretchedness, and brutality, should exfor I was never lost in the one, nor defil. ist in the very centre of civilized society. ed in the orber. My progress was of a There can be po safery with a populace, different kind. From building castles balf Luddite, balf Lazzaroni. Let us in the air to framing commonwealthis, not deceive ourselves. We are far from was, an easy transition; the next step that state in which any thing resembling was, to realize the vision; and in the equality would be possible, but we are hope of accomplishing this I sorsook the arrived at that state in which the ex. course of life for which I had been de tremes of inequality are become intoler. signed, and the prospects of advance able. They are too dangerous, as well ment which, I may say without pre as too monstrous, to be borne much sumption, were within my reach. My longer. Plans, which would have led to purpose was, to retire with a few friends the utmost horror of insurrection, have into the wilds of America, and there lay been prevented by the Government, and the foundations of a community, upon by the enactment of strong, but neceswbat we believed to be the political sys sary Laws. Let it not, however, be suptem of Christianity. It matters not in posed that the disease is bealed, because wbat manner the vision was dissolved. the ulcer may skin over. The remedies I am not writing my own Memoirs, and by which tbe body politic can be restored it is sufficient simply to state the fact. to health, must be slow in their operaWe were connected with no clubs, no tion. The condition of the populace, societies, no party. The course which pbysical, moral, and intellectual, must we would bave pursued might have be improved; or a Jacquirie, a bellum proved destructive to ourselves; but, as servile, sooner or later will be the result: it related to all other persons, never did It is the people at this time who stand the aberrations of youth take a more in in need of reformation, not the Governnocent direction.
ment. The Government must better “ At no period of my life have I held the condition of the populace ; and tbe any opinions like those of the Buona first thing necessary is to prevent it from partists and Revolutionists of the present being worsened. It must no longer day ;-never could I bave held any com suffer itself to be menaced, its Chief Mamunion with such men, in thought, gistrate insulted, and its most saered inword, or deed ; - my nature, God be stitutions vilified with impunity. It thanked! would always have kept me must curb the seditious press, and keep from them instinctively, as it would it curbed. For this purpose, if the Laws from toad or asp.
are not at present effectual, they should “ Greater changes in the condition of be made so ; nor will they then avail; the country have been wrought during unless they are vigilantly executed. I the last half century, than an equal say this, well knowing to what obloquy course of years had ever before produced. it will expose me, and how grossly and Without entering into the proofs of this impudently my meaning will be misreproposition, suffice it to indicate as presented; but I say it, because, if the among the most efficient causes, the licentiousness of the press be not curbed, steam and the spinning engines, the its abuse will must assuredly one day mail coach, and the free publication of occasion the loss of its freedom. the Debates in Parliament; hence fol “ This is the first and most indispenlow, in natural and necessary conse sable measure ; for witbout this all quence, increased activity, enterprize, others will be fruitless. Next in urwealth, and power: but, on the other gency is the immediate relief of the hand, greediness of gain, looseness of poor. I differ toto cælo from Mr. Owen principle, balf kuowledge (more perilous of Lanark, in one main point. To build than ignorance), vice, poverty, wretch upon any other foundation than Religion, edness, disaffection, and political inse is building upon sand. But I admire his curity. The changes which bave taken practical benevolence !-- I love his enplace render otber changes inevitable ; thusiasm -- and I go far with him in his forward we must go, for it is not pos- earthly views. I sincerely wish that his sible to retrace our steps; the hand of plan for the extirpation of pauperisa the political horologe cannot go back, should be fairly tried. To employ the like the shadow upon Hezekiah's poor in manufactures, is only shifting the dial; when the hour comes, it must evil, and throwing others out of employ, strike.
by bringing more labour, and more proSlavery bas long ceased to be, toler. duce of Jabour, into a market which is able in Europe: the remains of feudal already overstocked.
“ Wise and extensive plans of foreign pences, the chicanery, and the ruinous colonization contribute essentially to delays of the law. keep a state like England in health; but “How far the writings of Mr. Southey we must not overlook the greater facility may be found to deserve a favourable of colonizing at home. Would it not acceptance from after-ages, time will be desirable that tracts of waste land decide; but a name, wbich, wbether should be purchased with public money, worthily or not, has been conspicuous in to be held as national domains, and co the literary history of its age, will cer. Jonized with our disbanded soldiers and tainly not perish. Some account of his sailors, and people who are in want of life will always be prefixed to his works, employment, dividing them into estates and transferred to literary histories, and of different size, according to the capa to the biographical dictionaries, not only bility of the speculators; and alloiting of this, but of other countries. There to every cottage that should be erected it will be related, that he lived in the there a certain proportion of ground? bosom his family in absolute retire
“ A duty scarcely less urgent than that ment; that in all bis writings there of diminishing the burthen of the poor breathed the same abhorrence of
oppresrates, is that of providing for the educa sion and immorality, the same spirit of tion of the lower classes. Government devotion, and the same ardent wishes must no longer, in neglect of its first for the amelioration of mankind; and and paramount duty, allow them to that the only charge which malice could grow up in worse than heathen igno- bring against nim was, that, as he grew rance. They must be trained in the way older, his opinions altered concerning the they should go: they must be taugbt means by which that amelioration was to fear God, and keep his command to be effected ; and t bat, as he learnt to ments ; for this is the whole duty of understand the institutions of bis Coun
Mere reading and writing will try, he learnt to appreciate them rightly, put do this; they must be instructed ac- .
to love, and to revere, and to defend eurding to the Established Religion; them. It will be said of him, that, in they must be fed with the milk of sound
an age of personality, be abstained from doctrine : for States are secure in pro- satire; and that, during the course of his portion as the great body of the people literary life, often as he was assailed, are attached to the institutions of their
the only occasion on which he ever concountry. A moral and religious educa
descended to reply was, when a certain tion will induce habits of industry ; the Mr. William Smith insulted him in Parpeople will know their duty, and find liament with the appellation of Renetheir interest and their happiness in fol. gade. On that occasion it will be said, lowing it. Give us the great boon of pa- that he vindicated himself as it became rochial education, so connected with him to do, and treated his calumniator the Church as to form part of the Esta. with just and memorable severity. Wheblishment; and we shall find it a bul. ther it shall be added, that Mr. William wark to the State as well as to the Smith redeemed bis own character, by Church. Let this be done, let saving coming forward with honest manliness, banks be generally introduced, let new and acknowledging that he had spoken channels for industry be opened (as soon rashly and unjustly, concerns himself; as the necessities of the State will per but is not of the slightest importance to mit), by a liberal expenditure in public
ROBERT SOUTHEY." works, by colonizing our waste lands at home, and 'regularly sending off our swarms abroad; and the gth, weaith,
Frier Walls, York, and security of the Nation will be in pro
April 18, 1816. portion to its numbers.
" It is likewise incumbent upon the justice bas been done to my Government to take heed, lest, in its so Father's memory, in the Rev. James licitude for raising the necessary reve. Dallaway's “ Observations on Eognue, there should be too little regard lish Architecture," I beg to request for the means by wbich it is raised. It
that you will be pleased to insert in should beware of imposing such duties
your Magazine the following Letters; as create a strong temptation to evade
the former of which was written twelve tbem. It should be careful that all its
months ago ; and Mr. Dallaway not measures tend, as much as possible, to the improvement of the people ; and es
having answered, I cannot, in compecially careful that nothing be done pliance with my feelings, permitiny which can tend in any way to corrupt- late Father's merits, which Mr. D. them. It should reform its prisons, and has so unjustifiably depreciated, to apply some remedy to the worst griev. pass unobserved to the publick any ance which existm, the enormous ex looger.
To the Rev. James Dallaway, M.B. mention two in Lincola Cathedral F.S. A. Heralds College, London. in the year 1762 (one of which meaRev. Sir,
sured about nine hundred square feet I yesterday perused your Book, of Glass), and one for the Society of entitled “ Observations on English New College, Oxford, in the year Architecture," published in the year 1764, measuring about six hundred 1806; aod as a Daughter of that square feet of Glass. worthy and eminent Artist, the late Those Patriarchs which you term Mr. Peckitt of York, my feelings ". Arbitrary Portraits of the canowere excited at particular parts of nized Worthies of the Chureh,” were it, which also impel me to inform painted in the year 1774, from the you of some egregious errors the coloured designs of Biagio Rebecca work contains. I shall for the pre- (a pupil of Cipriani's), who went down sent principally confine myself to a to Oxford with my Father for that few of those relating to him whose purpose. The Books of my late Fa-, abilities you have depreciated. lo ther shew the names of near three the first place, page 282, those“ De- hundred Noblemen and Gentlemen signs and arrangements of Mosaic,” of the three kingdoms, evincing the at Strawberry-Hill, done in the year patronage be received, and proving 1761, 1762, and in February and ihat he was not so inferior an Artist September 1772, were all executed as you have thought proper to pour. by my Father. In the second place, tray bim. you speak of a School established at
The patent he obtained was not York; and how you came by such “ for taking off impressions from information I am at a loss to dis- Copper-plates and staining them on cover, never having heard or read of Glass," neither were the Receipts such an Institution in any age! My and Utensils sold in the year 1802. Father was not instrucied by any They are yet in the possession of the one, nor assisted by any person ex. Family, as the Prospectus I have cept my Mother; he found out the sent will convioce you. The serious secret by his owo study and practice. event of my dear Father's death took, You say " Peckitt's proficieocy was place in the year 1795. inferior to that of his predecessors, I sball only trouble myself with and who produced only an extreme one further remark. brilliancy of Colours." The excel. The painting given by the Earl of lency of his colours (particularly the Carlisle to York Minster is not the Ruby) no one has ever excelled, or Crucifixion ; the subject is a circumperhaps eqoalled; and even had his stance which took place prior to our proficiency been really so inferior as Saviour's birth. you have been pleased to say as a Before I close this explanation, I self-taught Artist, bis merits might most impart, that I consider myself have demanded (I will not say indul- and the family much injured by your gence, but) at least candour and im. Publication. 'I am, Rev. Sir, partiality from the severest Critic. Your humble Servant, You also err in asserting that “ He
HARRIET PECKITT. was first known by the great West York, April 18th, 1816. Window in Exeter Cathedral, wbich he stained in 1764 (the date upon To the Rev. James Dallaway, M.B. the window is 1766). It consists
F.S.A. chiefly of mosaics and armorial en
Frier Walls, York, signs, which were well suited to his
June 15, 1816. pencil.” . Sir, I must here observe, In consequence of my not receivthat window contains about six hun. ing any information from you redred square feet of Glass, and has specting my Letter, dated April 18, very little mosaic in it; the lower I feel myself again called upon, and part consists of seven , full-length request you will answer the obserfigures as large as life; the upper vation I then made relative to your part and sides, I allow, are mostly Publication, which so much concerns Coats of Arins. Previous to that myself and the family. I am, Rev. Wivdow, others of large size were Sir, your obedient servant, done by my Father; I shall only