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they finally subdued until the reigns of David and Solomon, who reduced them to the condition of slaves: the latter employed 153,600 of them in the most servile parts of his work, in building his temple, palace, &c. (2 Sam. v. 6-8. 1 Chron. xi. 4-8. 1 Kings ix. 20. 2 Chron. ii. 17, 18. and viii. 7, 8.)

Besides these devoted nations there were others, either settled in the land at the arrival of the Israelites, or in its immediate environs, with whom the latter had to maintain many severe conflicts: they were six in number.

1. The PHILISTINES were the descendants of Mizraim, the second son of Ham; who, migrating from Caphtor or the north-eastern part of Egypt, very early settled in a small strip of territory along the sea-shore, in the south-west of Canaan, having expelled the Avites, who had before possessed it. (Deut. ii. 23. Amos ix. 7. Jer. xlvii. 4.) The district occupied by the Philistines was in the time of Joshua distinguished into five lordships, denominated, from the chief towns, Gaza, Ashdod, Askelon, Gath, and Ekron. They were the most formidable enemies perhaps whom the children of Israel had to encounter: and of the inveteracy of their enmity against the latter, we have abundant evidence in the sacred writings. Though they were subdued by David, and kept in subjection by some succeeding monarchs, yet they afterwards became so considerable, that from them the Holy Land was called by the Greeks Palestine, which appellation it retains to this day. The country was finally subdued, about the year of the world 3841 (B. c. 159) by the illustrious general, Judas Maccabæus; and about sixty-five years afterwards Jannæus burnt their city Gaza, and incorporated the remnant of the Philistines with such Jews as he placed in their country.

2. The MIDIANITES were the descendants of Midian, the fourth son of Abraham by Keturah. (Gen. xxv. 2.) In the Scriptures two different places are assigned as the territory of the Midianites: the one, almost the north-east point of the Red Sea, where Jethro the father-in-law of Moses was a prince or priest. These western or southern Midianites were also called Cushites, because they occupied the country that originally belonged to Cush. They retained the knowledge of the true God, which appears to have been lost among the eastern or northern Midianites who dwelt on the east of the Dead Sea. (Gen. xxv. 2-6. xxxvii. 28. Exod. ii. iii. xvii.) These northern Midianites were either subject to or allied with the Moabites; and their women were particularly instrumental in seducing the Israelites to idolatry and other crimes; which wickedness was punished by Jehovah with the almost total destruction of their nation (Numb. xxii. 4-7. xxv. xxxi. Josh. xiii. 21.); although they afterwards recovered so much of their former strength as to render the Israelites their tributaries, and for seven years greatly oppressed them. From this bondage, Gideon delivered his countrymen with a very inferior force, and almost annihilated the Midianites, whose surviving remnants are supposed to have been incorporated with the Moabites or Ammonites.

bounded on the west by the Mediterranean or Great Sea, as it is often called in the Scriptures; on the east by Arabia; on the south by the river of Egypt (supposed to be not the Nile, but the Sichor, Josh. xiii. 3. Jer. ii. 18.), and the Desert of Sin, or Beersheba, the southern shore of the Dead Sea, and the river Arnon; and on the north by the chain of mountains termed Antilibanus, near which stood the city of Dan: hence in the sacred writings we frequently meet with the expression, from Dan to Beersheba, in order to denote the whole length of the land of Israel.1

III. The Land of Canaan, previously to its occupation by the Israelites, was possessed by the descendants of Canaan, the youngest son of Ham, and grandson of Noah; who divided the country among his eleven sons, each of whom was the head of a numerous clan or tribe. (Gen. x. 15-19.) Here they resided upwards of seven centuries, and founded numerous republics and kingdoms. In the days of Abraham, this region was occupied by ten nations; the Kenites, Kenizzites, and the Kadmonites, to the east of Jordan; and westward, the Hittites, Perizzites, Rephaims, Amorites, Canaanites, Girgashites, and the Jebusites. (Gen. xv. 18-21.) These latter in the days of Moses were called the Hittites, Girgashites, Amorites, Canaanites, Perizzites, Hivites, and Jebusites (Deut. vii. 1. Josh. iii. 10. xxiv. 11.); the Hivites being substituted for the Rephaims. These seven nations were thus distributed :

The Hittites, or sons of Heth, the Perizzites, the Jebusites, and the Amorites, dwelt in the mountains, or hill country of Judæa, southward; the Canaanites dwelt in the midland by the sea, westward, and by the coast of Jordan eastward; and the Girgashites, or Gergesenes, along the eastern side of the sea of Galilee; and the Hivites in Mount Lebanon, under Hermon, in the land of Mizpeh or Gilead, northward. (Compare Numb. xiii. 29. Josh. xi. 3. Judges iii. 3. and Matt. viii. 28.) Of all these nations the Amorites became the most powerful, so as to extend their conquests beyond the river Jordan over the Kadmonites; whence they are sometimes put for the whole seven nations, as in Gen. xv. 16. Josh. xxiv. 15. and 2 Sam. xxi. 2.

These nations were the people whom the children of Israel were commanded to exterminate. Within the period of seven years Moses conquered two powerful kingdoms on the east, and Joshua thirty-one smaller kingdoms on the west of Jordan, and gave their land to the Israelites; though it appears that some of the old inhabitants were permitted by Jehovah to remain there, to prove their conquerors, whether they would hearken to the commandments of the Lord, which he commanded their fathers by the hand of Moses: and the nations thus spared were afterwards suffered to oppress the Israelites with great severity. (Numb. xxi. 21-35. xxxii. and xxxiv. Deut. ii. 26-37. iii. 1-20. Josh. vi. 21. Judg. i. 4.) Nor were

1 For a full investigation of the boundaries of the promised land, see Michaelis's Commentaries on the Law of Moses, vol. i. pp. 55-97.

they finally subdued until the reigns of David and Solomon, who reduced them to the condition of slaves: the latter employed 153,600 of them in the most servile parts of his work, in building his temple, palace, &c. (2 Sam. v. 6-8. 1 Chron. xi. 4-8. 1 Kings ix. 20. 2 Chron. ii. 17, 18. and viii. 7, 8.)

Besides these devoted nations there were others, either settled in the land at the arrival of the Israelites, or in its immediate environs, with whom the latter had to maintain many severe conflicts: they were six in number.

1. The PHILISTINES were the descendants of Mizraim, the second son of Ham; who, migrating from Caphtor or the north-eastern part of Egypt, very early settled in a small strip of territory along the sea-shore, in the south-west of Canaan, having expelled the Avites, who had before possessed it. (Deut. ii. 23. Amos ix. 7. Jer. xlvii. 4.) The district occupied by the Philistines was in the time of Joshua distinguished into five lordships, denominated, from the chief towns, Gaza, Ashdod, Askelon, Gath, and Ekron. They were the most formidable enemies perhaps whom the children of Israel had to encounter: and of the inveteracy of their enmity against the latter, we have abundant evidence in the sacred writings. Though they were subdued by David, and kept in subjection by some succeeding monarchs, yet they afterwards became so considerable, that from them the Holy Land was called by the Greeks Palestine, which appellation it retains to this day. The country was finally subdued, about the year of the world 3841 (B. c. 159) by the illustrious general, Judas Maccabæus; and about sixty-five years afterwards Jannæus burnt their city Gaza, and incorporated the remnant of the Philistines with such Jews as he placed in their country.

2. The MIDIANITES were the descendants of Midian, the fourth son of Abraham by Keturah. (Gen. xxv. 2.) In the Scriptures two different places are assigned as the territory of the Midianites: the one, almost the north-east point of the Red Sea, where Jethro the father-in-law of Moses was a prince or priest. These western or southern Midianites were also called Cushites, because they occupied the country that originally belonged to Cush. They retained the knowledge of the true God, which appears to have been lost among the eastern or northern Midianites who dwelt on the east of the Dead Sea. (Gen. xxv. 2-6. xxxvii. 28. Exod. ii. iii. xvii.) These northern Midianites were either subject to or allied with the Moabites; and their women were particularly instrumental in seducing the Israelites to idolatry and other crimes; which wickedness was punished by Jehovah with the almost total destruction of their nation (Numb. xxii. 4-7. xxv. xxxi. Josh. xiii. 21.); although they afterwards recovered so much of their former strength as to render the Israelites their tributaries, and for seven years greatly oppressed them. From this bondage, Gideon delivered his countrymen with a very inferior force, and almost annihilated the Midianites, whose surviving remnants are supposed to have been incorporated with the Moabites or Ammonites.

3, 4. The MOABITES and AMMONITES were the descendants of the incestuous offspring of Lot. (Gen. xix. 30-38.) The Moabites dwelt on the east of the Jordan, in a tract whence they had expelled the Emims, a gigantic aboriginal race. The Ammonites had their residence north-east of the Moabites, which territory they had wrested from the Zamzummim, another gigantic tribe. The country occupied by these two tribes was exceedingly pleasant and fertile; they were violently hostile to the Israelites, whom they at different times terribly oppressed. They were conquered by David, and for about 150 years continued in subjection to the Israelites. On the division of the kingdom they fell to the share of the ten tribes; and after several attempts to regain their liberty under succeeding kings of Israel (some of whom severely chastised them, and imposed heavy tributes upon them), they are supposed to have effected their complete liberation during the unhappy reign of Ahaz.

5. The AMALEKITES were descended from Amalek the son of Ham, and grandson of Noah, and were very formidable enemies to the Israelites. They were settled on the south coast westward of Jordan, and first opposed the Israelites after their departure from Egypt, but were defeated or doomed and destruction (Exod. xvii. 8-16. Deut. xxv. 17-19.); which was commenced by Saul, and finished by David.

6. The EDOMITES were the descendants of Esau or Edom; they possessed themselves of the country southward of Judæa, which was originally occupied by the Horites, who are supposed to have been finally blended with their conquerors. It was a mountainous tract, including the mountains of Seir and Hor, and the provinces of Dedan, Teman, &c. Inveterate foes to Israel, they were rendered tributary by David, and for 150 years continued subject to the kingdom of Judah. After various attempts, they revolted under the reign of Jehoram, and ultimately succeeded in rendering themselves independent. (2 Chron. xxi. 8-10.)

IV. On the conquest of Canaan by the children of Israel, Joshua divided it into twelve parts, which the twelve tribes drew by lot, according to their families: so that, in this division every tribe and every family received their lot and share by themselves, distinct from all the other tribes. Thus, each tribe remained a distinct province, in which all the freeholders were not only Israelites, but of the same tribe, or descendants from the same patriarch: and the several families were placed together in the same neighbourhood, receiving their inheritance in the same part or subdivision of the tribe. Or, each tribe may be said to live together in one and the same country, and each family in one and the same hundred: so that the inhabitants of every neighbourhood were relations to each other, and of the same families. Nor was it permitted that an estate in one tribe should become the property of any person belonging to another tribe, even by the marriage of an heiress. See the case of the daughters of Zelophehad, in Numb. xxxvi. 6, 7.

In order to preserve as nearly as possible the same balance, not only between the tribes but between the heads of families and the families of the same tribes, it was further provided that every man's possession should be unalienable.

The wisdom of this constitution had provided for a release of all debts and servitudes every seventh year (Deut. xv. 1, 2. 12.), that the Hebrew nation might not moulder away from so great a number of free subjects, and be lost to the public in the condition of slaves. It was moreover provided, by the law of jubilee, which was every fiftieth year, that then all lands should be restored, and the estate of every family, being discharged from all incumbrances, should return to the family again. For this there was an express law. (Lev. xxv. 10.) Ye shall hallow the fiftieth year, and proclaim liberty throughout all the land, unto all the inhabitants thereof: it shall be a jubilee unto you, and ye shall return every man to his possession, and ye shall return every man unto his family. It is further enacted, And the land shall not be sold for ever; (or, as in the margin, be quite cut off, or alienated from the family;) for the land is mine, for ye are strangers and sojourners with me.

By this agrarian law of the Hebrews, all estates were to be kept in the same families, as well as the same tribes to which they originally belonged at the first division of the land by Joshua; so that how often soever a man's estate had been sold or alienated from one jubilee to another, or through how many hands soever it had passed, yet in fifty years every estate must return to the heirs of the persons who were first possessed of it.

It was at first an excellent constitution, considering the design of this government, to make so equal a division of the land among the whole Hebrew nation, according to the poll; it made provision for settling and maintaining a numerous and a brave militia of six hundred thousand men, which, if their force was rightly directed and used, would be a sufficient defence not only against any attempts of their less powerful neighbours, to deprive them of their liberty or religion; but considering moreover the natural security of their country, into which no inroads could be made, but through very difficult passes, it was a force sufficient to defend them against the more powerful empires of Egypt, Assyria, or Babylon.

The wisdom of this constitution is yet further observable, as it provided against all ambitious designs of private persons, or persons in authority, against the public liberty; for no person in any of the tribes, or throughout the whole Hebrew nation, had such estates and possessions, or were allowed by the constitution to procure them, that could give any hopes of success in oppressing their brethren and fellow-subjects. They had no riches to bribe indigent persons to assist them, nor could there at any time be any considerable number of indigent persons to be corrupted. They could have no power to force their fellow-subjects into a tame submission to any of their ambitious views. The power in the hands of so many freeholders in each tribe, was so unspeakably superior to any

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