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salem, this city became eminent for its
Academy, over which a succession of
Jewish doctors presided until the
fourth century. The modern popula-
tion of Tiberias is from fifteen hun-
dred to two thousand: it is principally
inhabited by Jews, who are said to be
the descendants of families resident
there in the time of our Saviour. Dr.
Clarke conjectures that they are a
remnant of refugees who fled hither
after the capture of Jerusalem by the
Romans. Tiberias is about ninety
miles distant from Jerusalem: the
modern town stands close to the lake
upon a small plain surrounded by
mountains, and is celebrated for its hot
baths, which are much frequented.1

At the time of writing the Epistle
to the Thessalonians, Thessalonica
was the residence of the pro-consul
who governed the province of Mace-
donia, and of the quaestor who had the
charge of the imperial revenues. Be-
sides being the seat of government,
this port carried on an extensive com-
merce, which caused a great influx of
strangers from all quarters; so that
Thessalonica was remarkable for the
number, wealth, and learning of its
inhabitants. The Jews were extreme-
ly numerous here. The modern name
of this place is Salonichi: it is the
chief port of modern Greece, and has
a population of sixty thousand per-
sons, twelve thousand of whom are
Jews. According to Dr. Clarke, who
has given a very interesting account
of the antiquities, present state, and
commerce of Thessalonica, this place
is the same now it was then; a set of
turbulent Jews constituted a very
principal part of its population: and,
when Saint Paul came hither from
Philippi, where the Gospel was first
preached, to communicate the "glad
tidings" to the Thessalonians, the
Jews were sufficient in number to
"set all the city in an uproar."

TRACHONITIS. See p. 16. supra.
TYRE, a celebrated city and sea-port
of Phoenicia, that boasted of a very
early antiquity, which is recognised
by the prophet Isaiah (xxiii. 7.), but is
variously estimated by profane writers,
whose discordant accounts this is not
the place to adjust and determine.
Even in the time of Joshua, it was
strongly fortified; for it is called the
strong city of Tyre. (Josh. xix. 29.) Tyre
was twofold, insular and continental.
Insular Tyre was certainly the most
antient; for this it was which was no-
ticed by Joshua: the continental city,
however, as being more commodious-
ly situated, first grew into considera-
tion, and assumed the name of Pala-
tyrus, or Old Tyre. Want of sufficient
attention to this distinction, has em-
barrassed both the Tyrian chronology
and geography. Insular Tyre was
confined to a small rocky island, eight
hundred paces long and four hundred
broad, and could never exceed two
miles in circumference. But Tyre, on
the opposite coast, about half a mile
from the sea, was a city of vast extent,
since many centuries after its demoli-
tion by Nebuchadnezzar, the scattered
ruins measured nineteen miles round,
as we learn from Pliny and Strabo.
Of these, the most curious and sur-

THYATIRA, a city of Asia Minor, was
a considerable city in the road from
Pergamos to Sardis, and about 48
miles eastward of the former. It is
called by the Turks Ak-hisar: and the
number of Christians here is about as
great as at Bergamo or Pergamos.

TIBERIAS (John vi. 1-23. xxi. 1.), a
city of Galilee, which was built by
Herod the Great, and so called in ho-
nour of the emperor Tiberius. The
privileges conferred upon its inhabit-prising are, the cisterns of Ras-el-Ain,
ants by Herod, caused it in a short designed to supply the city with wa-
time to become a place of considerable ter; of which there are three still en-
note: it was situated in a plain near tire; about one or two furlongs from
the Lake of Gennesareth, which is the sea, so well described by Maun-
thence termed the Lake or Sea of Ti-drell, for their curious construction
berias. After the destruction of Jeru- and solid masonry. "The fountains


the capital of one of the four districts
into which the Romans divided that
country after its conquest by Paulus
Æmilius. It was situated on the Ther-
mian Bay, and was antiently called
Therme; but, being rebuilt by Philip
the father of Alexander, after his vic-
tory over the Thessalians, it then re-
ceived the name of Thessalonica.

1 Dr. Clarke's Travels, vol. iv. pp. 219-233. 8vo. Capt. Light's Travels in Egypt,
&c. &c. p. 203. Mr. Jolliffe's Letters from Palestine, pp. 32-34. Mr. Burckhardt's
Travels in Syria, &c. pp. 320-330.

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of these waters," says he, after the description, "are as unknown as the contriver of them. According to common tradition, they are filled from a subterraneous river which king Solomon discovered by his great sagacity; and he caused these cisterns to be made as part of his recompense to king Hiram, for the materials furnished by that prince towards building the temple at Jerusalem. It is certain, however, from their rising so high above the level of the ground, that they must be brought from some part of the mountains, which are about a league distant; and it is as certain" that the work was well done at first; seeing it performs its office so well, at so great a distance of time; the Turks having broken an outlet on the west side of the cistern, through which there issues a stream like a brook, driving four corn mills between it and the sea." From these cisterns there was an aqueduct which led to the city, supported by arches, about six yards from the ground, running in a northerly direction, about an hour, when it turns to the west, at a small mount, where antiently stood a fort, but now a mosque, which seems to ascertain the site of the old city; and thence proceeds over the isthmus that connects insular Tyre with the main, built by Alexander, when he besieged and took it.

Old Tyre withstood the mighty Assyrian power, having been besieged, in vain, by Shalmaneser, for five years, although he cut off their supplies of water from the cisterns, which they remedied, by digging wells, within the city. It afterwards held out for thirteen years against Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, and was at length taken: but not until the Tyrians had removed their effects to the insular town, and left nothing but the bare walls to the victor, which he demolished.

of five months. Pococke observes, that "there are no signs of the antient city; and as it is a sandy shore, the face of every thing is altered, and the great aqueduct is in many parts almost buried in the sand." (Vol. ii. p. 81.) Thus has been fulfilled the prophecy of Ezekiel: Thou shalt be built no more: though thou be sought for, yet shalt thou never be found again! (xxvi. 21.)

The fate of Insular Tyre has been no less remarkable: when Alexander stormed the city, he set fire to it. This circumstance was foretold : Tyre did build herself a strong hold, and heaped up silver as the dust, and fine gold as the mire of the streets. Behold the Lord will cast her out, and he will smite her power in the sea, and she shall be devoured with fire." (Zech. ix. 3, 4.) After this terrible calamity, Tyre again retrieved her losses. Only eighteen years after, she had recovered such a share of her antient commerce and opulence, as enabled her to stand a siege of fourteen months against Antigonus, before he could reduce the city. After this, Tyre fell alternately under the dominion of the kings of Syria and Egypt, and then of the Romans, until it was taken by the Saracens, about A. d. 639, retaken by the Crusaders, a. D. 1124; and at length sacked and rased by the Mamelukes of Egypt, with Sidon, and other strong towns, that they might no longer harbour the Christians, A. D. 1289.1


The following description of the modern town of Surat, by a recent intelligent traveller, will give the reader a lively idea of the splendour of antient Tyre in the days of her commercial prosperity, as delineated by the prophet Ezekiel (xxvii. 3.): "The bazaars, filled with costly merchandise, picturesque and interesting groups of natives on elephants, camels, horses, and mules: strangers from all parts of the globe, in their respective

What completed the destruction of

the city was, that Alexander after-costume; vessels building on the wards made use of these materials to stocks, others navigating the river; build a prodigious causeway, or isth- together with Turks, Persians, and mus, above half a mile long, to the Armenians, on Arabian chargers; insular city, which revived as the European ladies in splendid carphoenix, from the ashes of the old, riages, the Asiatic females in hackeries and grew to great power and opulence, drawn by oxen; and the motley apas a maritime state; and which he pearance of the English and nabob's stormed after a most obstinate siege troops on the fortifications, remind us

1 Dr. Hales's Analysis, vol. i. pp. 442–444.

of the following description of Tyre:
O thou that art situate, &c. (Ezek.
xxvii. 3.) This is a true picture of
oriental commerce in antient times;
and a very exact description of the
port, and the baz ars of Surat, at the
present day."


ages, the broken aqueduct, and the
ruins which appear in its neighbour-
hood, exist, as an affecting monument
of the fragile and transitory nature
of earthly grandeur."2

"Numerous beautiful columns,
stretched along the beach, or stand-
ing in fragments half-buried in the
sand that has been accumulating for

ZEBULUN, Canton of the tribe of.
See pp. 12, 13.

ZIDON. See SIDON, p. 549.
ZIPH, Wilderness of. See p. 53. supra.

1 Forbes's Oriental Memoirs, vol. i. p. 247.

2 Jowett's Christian Researches in the Mediterranean, Appendix, p. 422. See other
Testimonies of modern travellers relative to the actual state of Tyre, in vol. i. pp. 329,
330. supra.





Chiefly extracted from Dr. Arbuthnot's Tables of Antient Coins, Weights, and Measures.

A digit

The gerah, one-twentieth of a shekel

Bekah, half a shekel

The Shekel

The maneh, 60 shekels

The talent, 50 maneh or 3000 shekels

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[Referred to, in Page 480. of this Volume.]

A cabit

1. Jewish Weights reduced to English troy weight.

lbs. oz.

No. II.

A span

2. Scripture Measures of length reduced to English measure.

3 A cubit






160 | 80 |

A fathom

3. The long Scripture Measures.




400 A stadium or furlong

2000 5 A sabbath day's journey ·

4000 10 2 An eastern mile 12000 30 6 3 A parasang 96000 240 | 48 | 24 8 A day's journey

pen. gr.

0 0 0 12





Eng. feet. inch.

0 0.912

0 3.648

0 10.944

1 9.888

7 3.552

1.5 Ezekiel's reed

10 11.328
14 7.104

2 1.3 An Arabian pole
2013.3 | 10 A schoenus or measuring line 145 11.04


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Eng. miles. paces. feet.

0 0 1.824

0 145 4.6

0 729 3.0

1 403 1.0

4 153 3.0

33 172 4.0

4. Scripture Measures of Capacity for Liquids, reduced to English wine


A caph

1.3 A log





32 | 24


| 72



A gachal

20 A cab





360 18

1800 | 90 |

3600 180

A gerah

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A cab

3 | A hin




5. Scripture Measures of Capacity for things dry, reduced to English

corn measure.



A seah

3 A bath or ephah

2010 A kor or coros, chomer or homer

10 A bekah


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6. Jewish Money reduced to the English Standard.

2 A shekel

1200 | 120 | 50 A maneh, or mina Hebraica 60000 6000| 3000 | 60 A talent

Gal. pints. 0 0.625

0 0.833

0 3.333

1 2

2 4

7 4

75 5

Pecks. gal. pints.

0 0 0.1416 0 0 2.8333 0 0 5.1

1 0 1

303 16 0 0 32 0 1

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A mite (Λεπτον Ασσαριον)

A farthing (Kodpavrns) about

A penny or denarius (Anvaptov)
A pound or mina

£. s. d. 0 0 1.2687 0 1 1.6875 0 2 3.375 5 14 0.75

A solidus aureus, or sextula, was worth

A siculus aureus, or shekel of gold, was worth
A talent of gold was worth

In the preceding table, silver is valued at 5s. and gold at £4 per ounce.

342 3 9

0 12 0.5 1 16 6 5475 0 0

7. Roman Money, mentioned in the New Testament, reduced to the Eng

lish Standard.

£. s. d. far.

0 0 0 03-4 0 0 0 11-2 0073 3260

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