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salem, this city became eminent for its
At the time of writing the Epistle
TRACHONITIS. See p. 16. supra.
THYATIRA, a city of Asia Minor, was
TIBERIAS (John vi. 1-23. xxi. 1.), a
the capital of one of the four districts
1 Dr. Clarke's Travels, vol. iv. pp. 219-233. 8vo. Capt. Light's Travels in Egypt,
of these waters," says he, after the description, "are as unknown as the contriver of them. According to common tradition, they are filled from a subterraneous river which king Solomon discovered by his great sagacity; and he caused these cisterns to be made as part of his recompense to king Hiram, for the materials furnished by that prince towards building the temple at Jerusalem. It is certain, however, from their rising so high above the level of the ground, that they must be brought from some part of the mountains, which are about a league distant; and it is as certain" that the work was well done at first; seeing it performs its office so well, at so great a distance of time; the Turks having broken an outlet on the west side of the cistern, through which there issues a stream like a brook, driving four corn mills between it and the sea." From these cisterns there was an aqueduct which led to the city, supported by arches, about six yards from the ground, running in a northerly direction, about an hour, when it turns to the west, at a small mount, where antiently stood a fort, but now a mosque, which seems to ascertain the site of the old city; and thence proceeds over the isthmus that connects insular Tyre with the main, built by Alexander, when he besieged and took it.
Old Tyre withstood the mighty Assyrian power, having been besieged, in vain, by Shalmaneser, for five years, although he cut off their supplies of water from the cisterns, which they remedied, by digging wells, within the city. It afterwards held out for thirteen years against Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, and was at length taken: but not until the Tyrians had removed their effects to the insular town, and left nothing but the bare walls to the victor, which he demolished.
of five months. Pococke observes, that "there are no signs of the antient city; and as it is a sandy shore, the face of every thing is altered, and the great aqueduct is in many parts almost buried in the sand." (Vol. ii. p. 81.) Thus has been fulfilled the prophecy of Ezekiel: Thou shalt be built no more: though thou be sought for, yet shalt thou never be found again! (xxvi. 21.)
The fate of Insular Tyre has been no less remarkable: when Alexander stormed the city, he set fire to it. This circumstance was foretold : Tyre did build herself a strong hold, and heaped up silver as the dust, and fine gold as the mire of the streets. Behold the Lord will cast her out, and he will smite her power in the sea, and she shall be devoured with fire." (Zech. ix. 3, 4.) After this terrible calamity, Tyre again retrieved her losses. Only eighteen years after, she had recovered such a share of her antient commerce and opulence, as enabled her to stand a siege of fourteen months against Antigonus, before he could reduce the city. After this, Tyre fell alternately under the dominion of the kings of Syria and Egypt, and then of the Romans, until it was taken by the Saracens, about A. d. 639, retaken by the Crusaders, a. D. 1124; and at length sacked and rased by the Mamelukes of Egypt, with Sidon, and other strong towns, that they might no longer harbour the Christians, A. D. 1289.1
The following description of the modern town of Surat, by a recent intelligent traveller, will give the reader a lively idea of the splendour of antient Tyre in the days of her commercial prosperity, as delineated by the prophet Ezekiel (xxvii. 3.): "The bazaars, filled with costly merchandise, picturesque and interesting groups of natives on elephants, camels, horses, and mules: strangers from all parts of the globe, in their respective
What completed the destruction of
the city was, that Alexander after-costume; vessels building on the wards made use of these materials to stocks, others navigating the river; build a prodigious causeway, or isth- together with Turks, Persians, and mus, above half a mile long, to the Armenians, on Arabian chargers; insular city, which revived as the European ladies in splendid carphoenix, from the ashes of the old, riages, the Asiatic females in hackeries and grew to great power and opulence, drawn by oxen; and the motley apas a maritime state; and which he pearance of the English and nabob's stormed after a most obstinate siege troops on the fortifications, remind us
1 Dr. Hales's Analysis, vol. i. pp. 442–444.
of the following description of Tyre:
ages, the broken aqueduct, and the
"Numerous beautiful columns,
ZAREPHATH. See SAREPTA, p. 548.
ZIDON. See SIDON, p. 549.
1 Forbes's Oriental Memoirs, vol. i. p. 247.
2 Jowett's Christian Researches in the Mediterranean, Appendix, p. 422. See other
TABLES OF WEIGHTS, MEASURES, AND MONEY, MENTIONED IN THE
Chiefly extracted from Dr. Arbuthnot's Tables of Antient Coins, Weights, and Measures.
The gerah, one-twentieth of a shekel
Bekah, half a shekel
The maneh, 60 shekels
The talent, 50 maneh or 3000 shekels
[Referred to, in Page 480. of this Volume.]
1. Jewish Weights reduced to English troy weight.
2. Scripture Measures of length reduced to English measure.
3 A cubit
160 | 80 |
3. The long Scripture Measures.
400 A stadium or furlong
2000 5 A sabbath day's journey ·
4000 10 2 An eastern mile 12000 30 6 3 A parasang 96000 240 | 48 | 24 8 A day's journey
0 0 0 12
Eng. feet. inch.
1.5 Ezekiel's reed
2 1.3 An Arabian pole
Eng. miles. paces. feet.
0 0 1.824
0 145 4.6
0 729 3.0
1 403 1.0
4 153 3.0
33 172 4.0
4. Scripture Measures of Capacity for Liquids, reduced to English wine
1.3 A log
32 | 24
20 A cab
1800 | 90 |
3 | A hin
5. Scripture Measures of Capacity for things dry, reduced to English
3 A bath or ephah
2010 A kor or coros, chomer or homer
10 A bekah
6. Jewish Money reduced to the English Standard.
2 A shekel
1200 | 120 | 50 A maneh, or mina Hebraica 60000 6000| 3000 | 60 A talent
Gal. pints. 0 0.625
Pecks. gal. pints.
0 0 0.1416 0 0 2.8333 0 0 5.1
1 0 1
303 16 0 0 32 0 1
A mite (Λεπτον Ασσαριον)
A farthing (Kodpavrns) about
A penny or denarius (Anvaptov)
£. s. d. 0 0 1.2687 0 1 1.6875 0 2 3.375 5 14 0.75
A solidus aureus, or sextula, was worth
A siculus aureus, or shekel of gold, was worth
In the preceding table, silver is valued at 5s. and gold at £4 per ounce.
342 3 9
0 12 0.5 1 16 6 5475 0 0
7. Roman Money, mentioned in the New Testament, reduced to the Eng
£. s. d. far.
0 0 0 03-4 0 0 0 11-2 0073 3260