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chose to be deposited, were commonly in solitary and unfrequented places. Thus we read that the demoniac of Gadara wore no clothes, and abode not in any house, but had his dwelling among the tombs (Mark v. 2, 3. 5. Luke viii. 27.);1 delighting in these gloomy and melancholy recesses, as most friendly and congenial to the wretched state of his mind.2 Josephus also states, that these sepulchres were the haunts and lurking places of those numerous and desperate bands of robbers with which Judæa was at that time infested.3 And a recent traveller, whose researches have thrown much light on the sacred writings, informs us, that these burying grounds frequently afford shelter to the weary traveller when overtaken by the night; and that the recesses are likewise a hiding place for thieves and murderers, who sally forth from them, to commit their nocturnal depredations.1

Sometimes they buried their dead in fields, over whom the opulent and families of distinction raised superb and ostentatious monuments, on which they lavished great splendour and magnificence and which they so religiously maintained from time to time in their pristine beauty and glory. To this custom our Saviour alludes in the following apt comparison: Woe unto you scribes and pharisees, hypocrites! for ye are like unto whited sepulchres, which indeed appear beautiful outward, but are within full of dead men's bones, and of all uncleanness. Even so ye also outwardly appear righteous to men, but within ye are full of hypocrisy and iniquity. (Matt. xxiii. 27.) The following extract from Dr. Shaw's Travels beautifully illustrates this: "If we except a few persons, who are buried within the precincts of the sanctuaries of their marabutts, the rest are carried out at a small distance from their cities and villages, where a great extent of

will illustrate the nature of the antient sepulchres, which were excavated out of the mountains. "Further in the recesses of the mountains, are the more magnificent Tombs of the Kings; each consisting of many chambers, adorned with hieroglyphics. The scene brings many allusions of Scripture to the mind; such as Mark v. 2, 3. 5., but particularly Isaiah xxii. 16. Thou hast hewed thee out a sepulchre here, as he that heweth him out a sepulchre on high, and that graveth a habitation for himself in a rock: for many of the smaller sepulchres are excavated nearly half way up the mountain, which is very high. The kings have their magnificent abodes nearer the foot of the mountain; and seem, according to Isaiah xiv. 18., to have taken a pride in resting as magnificently in death as they had done in life-All the kings of the nations, even all of them, lie in glory; every one in his own house. The stuccoed walls within are covered with hieroglyphics. They cannot be better described than in the words of Ezekiel, viii. 8-10.* Then said he unto me, Son of man, dig now in the wall: and when I had digged in the wall, behold a door. And he said unto me, Go in; and behold the wicked abominations that they do here. So I went in, and saw and behold every form of creeping things and abominable beasts, and all the idols of the house of Israel, portrayed upon the wall round about. The Israelites were but copyists: the master-sketches are to be seen in all the antient temples and tombs of Egypt."-Jowett's Researches, p.


1 See Capt. Light's Travels in Egypt, p. 206. Dr. Clarke's Travels, vol. iv. pp. 211, 212.

2 Ον θυμον κατεδων, πατον ανθρωπων αλεεινων. Iliad. Z. 302.

Τοι γαρ νυν αυτας εκ δόμων οιςρησ' εγω
Μανιαίς. ορος δ' οικουσι παράκοποι φρενων.

3 See Macknight on Mark v. 3.

4 Forbes's Oriental Memoirs, vol. iii.

Euripidis Baccha. ver. 32, 33.

p. 102.

ground is allotted for the purpose. Each family has a particular part of it walled in, like a garden, where the bones of their ancestors have remained for many generations. For in these enclosures the graves are all distinct and separated, each of them having a stone placed upright both at the head and feet, inscribed with the name and title (2 Kings xxiii. 17.) of the deceased; while the intermediate space is either planted with flowers, bordered round with stones, or paved with tiles. The graves of the principal citizens are further distinguished, by having cupolas or vaulted chambers of three, four, or more square yards built over them and as these very frequently lie open, and occasionally shelter us from the inclemency of the weather, the demoniac (Mark v. 5.) might with propriety enough have had his dwelling among the tombs: and others are said (Isa. lx. 4.) to remain among the graves and to lodge in the monuments (mountains.) And as all these different sorts of tombs and sepulehres, with the very walls likewise of their respective cupolas and enclosures, are constantly kept clean, white-washed, and beautified, they continue to illustrate those expressions of our Saviour, where he mentions the garnishing of sepulchres, and compares the scribes, pharisees, and hypocrites to whited sepulchres, which indeed appear beautiful outward, but within were full of dead men's bones and all uncleanness." But though the sepulchres of the rich were thus beautified, the graves of the poor were oftentimes so neglected, that if the stones, by which they were marked, happened to fail, they were not set up again, by which means the graves themselves did not appear; they were ada, as St. Luke expresses it; they appeared not, and the men that walked over them were not aware of them. (Luke xi. 44.)2

It appears from the Scriptures, that the Jews also had family sepulchres in places contiguous to their own houses, and (as we have already observed) generally in their gardens. Such was the place in which Lazarus was interred; and such also was the grave in which the body of our Lord was deposited. Joseph of Arimathea, a person of distinction, by St. Mark called an honourable counsellor (Mark xv. 43.),3 mindful of his mortality, had hewn out of the rock in his garden a sepulchre, in which he intended his own remains should be reposited. Now in the place where he was crucified there was a garden, and in the garden a new sepulchre, wherein was no man yet laid. When Joseph therefore had taken the body of Jesus, and wrapped it in a clean linen cloth, he carried it into the tomb which he had lately hollowed out of the rock (which was not a tomb, sunk into the earth like a cave, but what is called in Isa. xxii. 16. a sepulchre on high); and rolled a great stone to the low door of the

1 Dr. Shaw's Travels, p. 385. first edition. Oxford, 1738.

2 Dr. Macknight in loc.

3 Evexnpwv bovλcurns. This denotes that he was a member of the Sanhedrin. bovλcurns is the word used for senator in almost every page of the Greek writers of the Roman history.

sepulchre, effectually to block up the entrance, and secure the sacred corpse of the deceased, both from the indignities of his foes and the officiousness of his friends.

VI. A funeral feast commonly succeeded the Jewish burials. Thus after Abner's funeral was solemnised, the people came to David to eat meat with him, though they could not persuade him to do so. (2 Sam. iii. 35.) He was the chief mourner, and probably had invited them to this banquet. Of this Jeremiah speaks (xvi. 7.), where he calls it the cup of consolation, which they drank for their father or their mother; and accordingly the place where this funeral entertainment was made, is called in the next verse the house of feasting. Hosea calls it the bread of mourners. (Hos. ix. 4.) Funeral banquets are still in use among the oriental Christians.1

The usual tokens of mourning, by which the Jews expressed their grief and concern for the death of their friends and relations, were by rending their garments, and putting on sackcloth (Gen. xxxvii. 34.), sprinkling dust on their heads, wearing of mourning apparel (2 Sam. xiv. 2.), and covering the face and the head. (2 Sam xix. 4.) They were accustomed also in times of public mourning to go up to the roofs or platforms of their houses, there to bewail their misfortunes, which practice is mentioned in Isaiah xv. 3. and xxii. 1. Antiently, there was a peculiar space of time allotted for lamenting the deceased, which they called the days of mourning. (Gen. xxvii. 41. and 1. 4.) Thus the Egyptians, who had a great regard for the patriarch Jacob, lamented his death threescore and ten days. (Gen. 1. 3.) The Israelites wept for Moses in the plains of Moab thirty days. (Deut. xxxiv. 8.) Afterwards among the Jews the funeral mourning was generally confined to seven days. Thus, besides the mourning for Jacob in Egypt, Joseph and his company set apart seven days to mourn for his father, when they approached the Jordan with his corpse. (Gen. 1. 10.) In the time of Christ, it was customary for the nearest relative to visit the grave of the deceased, and to weep there. The Jews, who had come to condole with Mary, on the death of her brother Lazarus, on seeing her go out of the house, concluded that she was going to the grave, to weep there. (John xi. 31.) A similar custom obtains to this day in Upper Egypt. We read no where of any general mourning for Saul and

1 Harmer's Observations, vol. iii. p. 19.

2" We arrived" (at one of the villages of Elephantina, an island in the Nile) "just in time to witness a coronagh or wailing for the dead. A poor woman of the village had that morning received the melancholy intelligence that her husband had been drowned in the Nile. He had been interred without her knowledge, near the spot where the body was found; and she, along with several of her female friends, was paying the unavailing tribute of lamentation to his departed shade." (Richardson's Travels, vol. i. p. 355.) "One morning," says the same intelligent traveller, "when standing among the ruins of the antient Syene, on the rocky promontory above the ferry, I saw a party of thirteen females cross the Nile to perform the lugubrious dirge at the mansions of the dead. They set up a piteous wail on entering the boat, after which they all cowered up together, wrapt in their dirty robes of beteen. On landing, they wound their way slowly and silently along the outside of the walls of the antient town, till they arrived at their place of destination, when some of them placed a sprig of flowers on the grave, and sat down

his sons, who died in battle; but the national troubles, which followed upon his death, might have prevented it. David indeed and his men, on hearing the news of their death, mourned and wept for them until even. (2 Sam. i. 12.) And the men of Jabesh-gilead fasted for them seven days (1 Sam. xxxi. 13.), which must not be understood in a strict sense, as if they eat nothing all that time, but that they lived very abstemiously, eat little, and that seldom, using a low and spare diet, and drinking water only.

How long widows mourned for their husbands is no where told us in Scripture. We find it is said of Bathsheba, that when she heard that Uriah her husband was dead, she mourned for him (2 Sam. xi. 26.); but this could neither be long nor very sincere.

The Jews paid a greater or less degree of honour to their kings after their death, according to the merits of their actions when they were alive. Upon the death of their princes, who had distinguished themselves in arms, or who, by any religious actions, or by the promotion of civil arts, had merited well of their country, they used to make lamentations or mournful songs for them: from an expression in 2 Chron. xxxv. 25. Behold, they are written in the Lamentations, we may infer that they had certain collections of this kind of composition. The author of the book of Samuel has preserved those which David composed on occasion of the death of Saul and Jonathan, of Abner and Absalom; but we have no remains of the mournful poem, which Jeremiah made upon the immature death of the pious king Josiah, mentioned in the last-cited chapter: which loss is the more to be deplored, because in all probability it was a masterpiece in its kind, since never was there an author more deeply affected with his subject, or more capable of carrying it through all the tender sentiments of sorrow and compassion, than Jeremiah.1

silently beside it; others cast themselves on the ground, and threw dust over their heads, uttering mournful lamentations, which they continued to repeat at intervals, during the short time that I witnessed their procedure." (Ibid. vol. i. p. 360.) Mr. Jowett witnessed a similar scene at Manfelout, a more remote town of Upper Egypt. Christian Researches, p. 162.

Jahn. Archæologia Biblica, pp. 289-302. Harwood's Introduction, vol. ii. pp. 129-152. Stosch, Compendium Archæologia Economica Novi Testamenti, pp. 121-132. Brunings, Compendium Antiquitatum Græcarum, pp. 388-400. The subject of Hebrew sepulchres is very fully discussed by Nicolai, in his treatise De Sepulchris Hebræorum (Lug. Bat. 1706. 4to.), which is illustrated with several curious plates, some of which however, it must be confessed, are rather fanciful.

[merged small][graphic]

Grotto at Nazareth, said to have been the House of Joseph and Mary

No. I.




Mentioned in the Scriptures, especially in the New Testament.

[Referred to, in page 11. of this Volume.].

**On account of the very great uncertainty attending the ascertaining of the situation of the majority of places, incidentally mentioned in the Old Testament, this index is chiefly restricted to the principal places and countries which occur in the New Testament. It is compiled from the labours of Calmet, Wells, Schleusner, Dr. Whitby, M. Anquetil, Dr. Hales, and other writers who have treated on sacred geography1, and particularly from the Travels in Palestine of Dr. E. D. Clarke, Mr Buckingham, the Rev. James Connor, and of Dr. Robert Richardson, who explored various parts of the East during the years 1816-1818, in company with the Rt. Hon. the Earl of Belmore..

1 The notices of the seven cities of Ephesus, Laodicea, Pergamos, Philadelphia, Sardis, Smyrna, and Thyatira, are derived from Smith's Survey of the Seven 65


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