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adapted to instruct us in our duty to God and man. The book of Ecclesiastes teaches us, in a very lively manner, the insufficiency of all earthly enjoyments to make a man happy. The Canticles or Song of Solomon, under the parable of a man's affection to his spouse, in very tender yet elegant expressions, shows us the ardent love of Christ to his church and people; and the Lamentations of Jeremiah contain a very mournful account of the state of Jerusalem, as destroyed by the Chaldæans.

VI. Music was cultivated with great ardour by the Hebrews, who did not confine it to sacred purposes, but introduced it upon all special and solemn occasions, such as entertaining their friends, public festivals, and the like; thus Laban tells Jacob that if he had known of his leaving him, he would have sent him away with mirth and with songs, with tabret and with harp. (Gen. xxxi. 27.) Isaiah says, that the harp and the viol, the tabret and pipe, are in their feasts (Isa. v. 12.); and, to express the cessation of these feasts, he says, the mirth of tabrets ceaseth, the joy of the harp ceaseth. (Isa. xxiv. 8.) It was also the custom at the coronation of kings. (2 Chron. xxiii. 13.) And it was the usual manner of expressing their mirth upon their receiving good tidings of victory, and upon the triumphal returns of their generals, as may be seen in Judg. xi. 34. and i Sam. xviii. 6. That music and dancing was used among the Jews at their feasts in latter ages, may be inferred from the parable of the prodigal son. (Luke xv. 25.) Besides their sacred music, the Hebrew monarchs had their private music. Asaph was master of David's royal band of musicians. It appears that in the temple-service female musicians were admitted, as well as males, and that in general they were the daughters of Levites. Heman had fourteen sons and three daughters, who were skilled in music and Ezra, when enumerating those who returned with him from the Babylonish captivity, reckons two hundred singing men and singing women. The Chaldee paraphrast on Eccles. ii. 8., where Solomon says that he had men singers and women singers, understands it of singing women of the temple.


In the tabernacle and the temple, the Levites (both men and women) were the lawful musicians; but on other occasions the Jews were at liberty to use any musical instruments, with the exception of the silver trumpets which were to be sounded only by the priests, on certain solemn and public occasions. (Numb. x. 1-10.) In order to give the best effect to the music of the tabernacle, David divided the four thousand Levites into twenty-four classes, who sang psalms and accompanied them with music. Over each class was placed a leader; and they performed the duties which devolved upon them, each class a week at a time in succession. The classes collectively, as a united body, were superintended by three directors, among whom Asaph, Heman, and Jeduthun, are particularly mentioned. (1 Chron. xvi. 5. xxiii. 5. xxv. 1-31. and 2 Chron. v. 12, 13.) This arrangement was subsequently continued by Solomon after the erection of the temple, and conintued till the overthrow of Jerusalem. Sometimes, indeed, it was interrupted during the reign

of the idolatrous kings, but was restored by their pious successors (2 Chron. v. 12-14. xxix. 27. xxxv. 15.): and it was continued after the captivity, as appears from Ezra iii. 10. Neh. xii. 45—47. 1 Macc. iv. 54. xiii. 51.

The following are the principal musical instruments mentioned in the sacred writings.1

1. Pulsatile Instruments.-These were three in number, viz. The tabret, the cymbal, and the sistrum.

(1.) The Tabret or Tabor,, (THEP), was composed of a circular hoop, either of wood or brass, which was covered with a piece of skin tensely drawn and hung round with small bells. It was held in the left hand and beaten to notes of music with the right: the ladies in the East to this day dance to the sound of this instrument. The earliest notice of the tabret occurs in Gen. xxxi. 27.

(2.) The Cymbal, y (TSELTSEL), Psal. cl. 5. consisted of two large and broad plates of brass, of a convex form; which being struck against each other, made a hollow ringing sound. They form, in our days, a part of every military band.

(3.) The Sistrum,, (MENAαNOIM), which in our version of 2 Sam. vi. 5. is mis-rendered cornets, was a rod of iron bent into an oval or oblong shape, or square at two corners and curved at the others, and furnished with a number of moveable rings; so that, when shaken, or struck with another rod of iron, it emitted the sound desired.

2. Wind Instruments.-Six of these are mentioned in the Scriptures, viz. The organ, the flute and hautboy, dulcimer, horn, and trumpet.

(1.) The Organ, (OGEB), is frequently mentioned in the Old Testament, and its invention is ascribed to Jubal in Gen. iv. 21.; but it cannot have been like our modern organs. From Ezek. xxxiii. 31. it seems rather to have been a kind of flute, at first composed of one or two, but afterwards of about seven pipes, made of reeds of unequal length and thickness, which were joined together. It corresponded most nearly to the dugy or pipe of Pan among the Greeks.

(2.) (3.) The (CHALIL), and the (NeKeB), which our translators have rendered pipes, are supposed to have been the flute and hautboy.

(4.) The (SUMPUNJаH), or dulcimer (Dan. iii. 5.), was a wind instrument made of reeds; by the Syrians called Sambonjah, by the Greeks Zap Buxn, and by the Italians Zampogna.

(5.) The Horn or Crooked Trumpet was a very antient instrument, made of the horns of oxen cut off at the smaller extremity. In

1 For some remarks on the titles of certain Psalms, which are supposed to have been derived either from musical instruments or the tunes to which they were sung. See Vol. IV. pp. 109, 110.

2 Josephus, Ant. Jud. lib. vii. c. 12.

progress of time rams' horns were used for the same purpose. It was chiefly used in war.

(6.) The form of the straight Trumpet is well known: it was used by the priests (Numb. x. 8. 1 Chron. xv. 24.) both on extraordinary occasions (Numb. x. 10.), and also in the daily service of the temple. (2 Chron. vii. 6. xxix. 26.) In time of peace, when the people or the rulers were to be convened together, this trumpet was blown softly but when the camps were to move forward, or the people were to march to war, it was sounded with a deeper note.

3. Stringed Instruments.-These were the harp and the psaltery.

(1.) The Harp (KINOUR) seems to have resembled that in modern use it was the most antient of all musical instruments. (Gen. iv. 21.) It had ten strings, and was played by David with the hand (1 Sam. xvi. 23.); but Josephus1 says, that it was played upon or struck with a plectrum.

(2.) The Psaltery (NEBEL) obtained its name from its resemblance to a bottle or flaggon: it is first mentioned in the Psalms of David, and the invention of it is ascribed to the Phoenicians. In Psal. xxxiii. 2. and exliv. 9. it is called a ten-stringed instrument, but in Psal. xcii. 3. it is distinguished from the latter. Josephus says, that it had twelve sounds (or strings), and was struck or played upon by the fingers.3

Effects the most astonishing are attributed in the Scriptures to the Hebrew music, of the nature of which we know but very little. Several examples are recorded, in the sacred history, of the power and charms of music to sweeten the temper, to compose and allay the passions of the mind, to revive the drooping spirits, and to dissipate melancholy. It had this effect on Saul, when David played to him on his harp. (1 Sam. xvi. 16. 23.) And when Elisha was desired by Jehoshaphat to tell him what his success against the king of Moab would be, the prophet required a minstrel to be brought unto him; and when he played it is said that the hand of the Lord came upon him (2 Kings iii. 15.), not that the gift of prophecy was the natural effect of music, but the meaning is, that music disposed the organs, the humours, and in short the whole mind and spirit of the prophet, to receive these supernatural impressions.

VII. Dancing was an ordinary concomitant of music among the Jews. Sometimes it was used on a religious account: thus Miriam with her women glorified God (after the deliverance from the Egyptians), in dances as well as songs (Exod. xv. 20.), and David danced after the ark. (2 Sam. ii. 16.) It was a thing common at the Jewish feasts (Judg. xxi. 19. 21.), and in public triumphs (Judg. xi. 34.), and at all seasons of mirth and rejoicing. (Psal. xxx. 11. Jer. xxxi. 4. 13. Luke xv. 25.) The idolatrous Jews made it a part of their

1 Ant. Jud. lib. vii. c. 12.

2 Ibid.

3 Calmet, Dissertation sur les Instrumens de Musique des Hebreux, prefixed to his Commentary on the Psalms. Jahn, Archeologia Biblica, pp. 145-152 Brown's Antiquities of the Jews, vol. i. pp. 315–321.

worship which they paid to the golden calf. (Exod. xxxi. 19.) The Amalekites danced after their victory at Ziklag (1 Sam. xxx. 16.), and Job makes it part of the character of the prosperous wicked (that is, of those who, placing all their happiness in the enjoyments of sense, forget God and religion), that their children dance. (Job xxi. 11.) The dancing of the profligate Herodias's daughter pleased Herod so highly, that he promised to give her whatever she asked, and accordingly, at her desire, and in compliment to her, he commanded John the Baptist to be beheaded in prison. (Matt. xiv. 6—8.)



I. Origin of the Sciences.-II. History, Genealogy, and Chronology. -III. Arithmetic, Mathematics, Astronomy, and Astrology.—IV. Surveying.-V. Mechanic Arts.-VI. Geography.-VII, Physics, Natural History, and Philosophy.-VIII. Medicine.-IX. Notice of some particular Diseases mentioned in the Scriptures, viz. 1. Disease of the Philistines; -2. Of King Saul;-3. Of King Jehoram;-4. Of King Hezekiah;-5. Of Nebuchadnezzar'; 6. Palsy ;-7. The Disease of Job;-8. Issue of Blood;-9. Blindness;-10. Demoniacal Possessions.

I. WHEN the arts had been reduced by long practice and meditation to fixed and definite rules, they were succeeded by the sciences; which in fact are nothing more than the reduction, into a more regular and philosophic form, of those rules and theories, which have been ascertained and approved by inquiry and practice. We are able to discover the beginnings, the indistinct vestiges of the sciences in very remote periods; and in some nations more strikingly than in others. The Egyptians, and Babylonians excelled in scientific knowledge all others. The Arabians also are favourably men tioned in this respect. (1 Kings iv. 30.; also the Edomites, Jer. xlix. 7.) The Hebrews became renowned for their intellectual culture in the time of David, and especially, of Solomon, who is said to have surpassed all others in wisdom; a circumstance, which was the ground of the many visits, which were paid to him by distinguished foreigners. (1 Kings v. 9-14.) His example, which was truly an illustrious one, was beyond question imitated by other kings. The literature of the Hebrews was limited chiefly to ethics, religion, the history of their nation, and natural history; on which last subject, Solomon wrote many treatises, no longer extant. The Hebrews

1 This section is taken principally from Mr. Upham's Translation of Jahn's Archeologia Biblica, Andover, Massachussetts, (1823) part i. chapters 6 and 12. In the accounts of diseases, Dr. Mead's Medica Sacra has chiefly been followed.

made but little progress in science and literature after the time of Solomon. During their captivity, it is true, they acquired many foreign notions, with which they had not been previously acquainted: and they, subsequently, borrowed much both of truth and of falsehood from the philosophy of the Greeks. The author of the book of Wisdom, with some others of the Jewish writers, has made pretty good use of the Greek philosophy. It is clear, notwithstanding this, that the Jews after the captivity fell below their ancestors in respect to History; as the published annals of that period are not of a kindred character with those of the primitive ages of their country.

II. That the art of Historical Writing was antiently much cultivated in the East, the Bible itself is an ample testimony; for it not only relates the prominent events, from the creation down to the fifth century before Christ, but speaks of many historical books, which have now perished; and also of many monuments erected in commemoration of remarkable achievements and furnished with appropriate inscriptions. These monuments are denominated by various names, as 7. The Babylonians also, the Assyrians, the Persians, and Tyrians, had their Historical Annals. Among the Egyptians, there was a separate order, viz. the priests, one part of whose duty it was, to write the history of their country. In the primitive ages the task of composing annals fell in most nations upon the priests, but at a later period, the king had his own secretaries, whose special business it was to record the royal sayings and achievements. The Prophets among the Hebrews recorded the events of their own times, and, in the earliest periods, the Genealogists interwove many historical events with their accounts of the succession of families. Indeed, it should not be forgotten, that antient history generally partakes more of a genealogical, than a chronological character. Hence the Hebrew phrase for genealogies, 750, is used also for history (Gen. vi. 9. x. 1.); and hence no epoch, more antient than that of Nabonassar, is any where found. In the Bible, however, this defect, in regard to a regular chronological system, is in a manner compensated by the insertion in various places of definite periods of time, and by chronological genealogies. In giving a concise account of the genealogy of a person, the Hebrews, as well as the Arabs, took the liberty to omit, according to their own pleasure, one or more generations. (Ruth iv. 1822. Ezra vii. 1-5. Matt. i. 8.) It was considered so much of an honour, to have a name and a place in these family annals, that the Hebrews, from their first existence as a nation, had public genealo

שוטר שוטרים gists, denominated

Not only the Hebrews, but, if we may credit Herodotus and Diodorus Siculus, the Egyptians also, assigned a certain period to a generation. According to their estimation, three generations made an hundred years. In the time of Abraham, however, when men lived to a greater age, an hundred years made a generation. This is clear from Gen. xv. 13. 16. and from the circumstance, that Abraham, 60


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