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to lead them on to battle. (2 Kings xxi. 17.) It does not appear that there were any horse in the Israelitish army before the time of Solomon. In the time of David there were none; for the rebel Absalom was mounted on a mule in the battle in which he lost his life. (2 Sam. xviii. 9.) Solomon, who had married the daughter of the king of Egypt, procured horses from that country at a great expense (1 Kings x. 28, 29.); and afterwards had four thousand stalls for horses and chariots, and twelve thousand horsemen. (2 Chron. ix. 25.) Subsequent kings of Judah and Israel went into the battle in chariots, arrayed in their royal vestments, or sometimes in disguise. They generally had a spare chariot to attend them: thus we read that king Josiah, after he was mortally wounded, was taken out of his war-chariot, and put into another, in which he was carried to Jerusalem. (2 Chron. xxxv. 23, 24. 1 Kings xxii. 34.) Both kings and generals had armour-bearers, who were chosen from the bravest of the soldiery, and not only bore the arms of their masters, but were also employed to give his commands to the subordinate captains, and were present at his side in the hour of peril. (1 Sam. xiv. 6. xvii. 7.)

Military chariots were much in use among the Egyptians, Canaanites, and other oriental nations. Two sorts are mentioned in the Scriptures; one in which princes and generals rode, the other to break the enemy's battalions by rushing in among them, armed with iron, which caused terrible havoc. The most antient warchariots, of which we read, are those of Pharaoh, which were destroyed in the Red Sea. (Exod. xiv. 7.) The Canaanites, whom Joshua engaged at the waters of Merom, had cavalry and a multitude of chariots. (Josh. xi. 4.) Sisera, the general of Jabin, king of Hazor, had nine hundred chariots of iron in his army. (Judg. iv. 3.) The tribe of Judah could not obtain possession of part of the lands allotted to them, because the inhabitants of the country were strong in chariots of iron. (Judg. i. 19.) The Philistines in their war with Saul, had thirty thousand chariots, and six thousand horsemen. (1 Sam. xiii. 5.) David, having taken a thousand war-chariots from Hadadezer, king of Damascus, ham-strung the horses, and burnt nine hundred chariots, reserving only one hundred. (2 Sam. viii. 4.) It does not appear that the Hebrews ever used chariots in war, though Solomon had a considerable number; but we know of no military expedition in which he employed them. In the book of Maccabees, mention is made of chariots armed with scythes, which the king of Syria led against the Jews. (2 Mac. xiii. 2.) The infantry, cavalry, and war-chariots, were so arranged as to form separate divisions of an army. (Exod. xiv. 6, 7.) The infantry were likewise divided into light-armed troops and into spear-men (Gen. xlix. 19. 1 Sam. xxx. 8. 15. 23. 2 Sam. iii. 22. iv. 2. xxii. 30. Psal. xviii. 30. in the Hebrew, 29 of English version, 2 Kings v. 2. Hos. vii. 1.) The light-armed troops or infantry were furnished with a sling and javelin, with a bow, arrows, and quiver, and also, at least in later times, with a buckler: they fought the enemy at a distance. The

spear-men, on the contrary, who were armed with spears, swords, and shields, fought hand to hand. (1 Chron. xii. 24. 34. 2 Chron. xiv. 8. xvii. 17.) The light-armed troops were commonly taken from the tribes of Ephraim and Benjamin. (2 Chron. xiv. 8. xvii. 17.)

IV. No information is given us us in the Scriptures, concerning the order of encampment adopted by the Israelites after their settlement in Canaan. During their sojourning in the wilderness, the form of their camp, according to the account given in Numb. ii., appears to have been quadrangular, having three tribes placed on each side, under one general standard, so as to inclose the tabernacle, which stood in the centre. Between these four great camps and the tabernacle were pitched four smaller camps of the priests and Levites, who were immediately in attendance upon it; the camp of Moses and of Aaron and his sons (who were the ministering priests, and had the charge of the sanctuary) was on the east side of the tabernacle, where the entrance was. From Isa. liv. 2. it appears that the tents, under which they lived, were nearly the same as those which are now in use in the East. Every family and household had their particular ensign; under which they encamped or pursued their march. Rabbinical writers assert that the standard of Judah was a lion; that of Reuben, the figure of a man; that of Ephraim, an ox; that of Dan, an eagle with a serpent in his talons: but for these assertions there is no foundation. They are probably derived from the patriarch's prophetic blessing of his children, related in Gen. xlix. It is far more probable, that the names of the several tribes were embroidered in large letters on their respective standards, or that they were distinguished by appropriate colours. The following diagram, after Rechenbergh and other writers on Jewish antiquities, will perhaps give the reader a tolerable idea of the beautiful order of the Israelitish encampment; the sight of which, from the mountains of Moab, extorted from Balaam (when he saw Israel abiding in his tents according to their tribes) the following exclamation :-How goodly are thy tents, O Jacob, and thy tabernacles, O Israel! As the vallies are they spread forth, as gardens by the river's side, as the trees of lign aloes which the Lord hath planted, and as cedar trees beside the waters. (Numb. xxiv. 2. 5, 6.)

1 Lamy de Tabernaculo, lib. iii, c. 2.

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During the encampment of the Israelites in the wilderness, Moses made various salutary enactments, which are recorded in Deut. xxiii. 10-15., for guarding against the vice and uncleanness that might otherwise have prevailed among so large a body of people, forming an aggregate of upwards of three millions. The following was the order of their march, which is not much unlike that in which the caravans or assemblages of oriental travellers still continue When they were to remove (which was only when the cloud was taken off the tabernacle) the trumpet was sounded, and upon the first alarm the standard of Judah being raised, the three tribes which belonged to it set forward; then the tabernacle being taken down, which was the proper office of the Levites, the Gershonites and the Merarites (two families of that order) attended the waggons with the boards, staves, &c. When these were on their march a second alarm was sounded, upon which the standard of Reuben's camp with the three tribes under it. After them followed the Kohathites (the third family of the Levites) bearing the sanctuary, that is, the Holy of Holies and the utensils thereto belonging; and because this was less cumbersome than the boards, pillars, and other parts of the tabernacle, and more holy, it was on that account not put into a



waggon, but carried on their shoulders. Next followed the standard of Ephraim's camp with the tribes belonging to it; and last of all the other three tribes under the standard of Dan brought up the rear; Moses and Aaron overseeing the whole, that every thing was done as God had directed, while the sons of Aaron were chiefly employed in blowing the trumpets, and other offices properly belonging to them.

From 1 Sam. xxvi. 5., as rendered in our authorised version (Saul lay in the trench, and the people pitched round about him,) it has been imagined that the Israelites had a fortified camp. The proper rendering is, that Saul lay among the baggage, with his spear stuck at his head (v. 7.), in the same manner as is usual among the Persians, and also among the Arabs to this day, wherever the disposition of the ground will permit it: their emir or prince being in the centre, and the Arabs around him at a respectful distance. When David is represented as sometimes secreting himself in the night, when he was with his armies, instead of lodging with the people (2 Sam. xvii. 8, 9.), it probably means that he did not lodge in the middle of the camp, which was the proper place for a king, in order that he might the better avoid any surprise from his enemies.3

V. In antient times the Hebrews received no pay, during their military service the same practice of gratuitous service obtained among the Greeks and Romans, in the early period of their respective republics.4 The Cherethites and Pelethites appear to have been the first stipendiary soldiers: it is however probable that the great military officers of Saul, David, Solomon, and the other kings had some allowance, suitable to the dignity of their rank. The soldiers were paid out of the king's treasury and in order to stimulate their valour, rewards and honours were publicly bestowed on those who distinguished themselves against the enemy; consisting of pecuniary presents, a girdle or belt, a woman of quality for a wife, exemptions from taxes, promotion to a higher rank in the army, &c., all of which were attended with great profit and distinction. (2 Sam. xviii. 11. Josh. xv. 16. 1 Sam. xviii. 25. 1 Chron. xi. 6.) In the age of the Maccabees, the patriot Simon both armed and paid his brave companions in arms, at his own expense. (1 Mac. xiv. 32.) Afterwards, it became an established custom, that all soldiers should receive pay. (Luke iii. 14. 1 Cor. ix. 7.)

It appears from various passages of Scripture, and especially from Isa. ii. 4. and Mich. iv. 3., that there were military schools, in which the Hebrew soldiers were trained, by proper officers, in those exercises which were in use among the other nations of antiquity. Swiftness of foot was an accomplishment highly valued among the Hebrew warriors, both for attacking and pursuing an enemy, as well as among

1 Morier's Second Journey into Persia, pp. 115, 116.

2 Dr. Della Cella's Narrative of an Expedition from Tripoli in Barbary to the Western Frontiers of Egypt, p. 11. London, 1822. 8vo.

3 Harmer's Observations, vol. iii. pp. 430, 431.

4 Livy, lib. iv. c. 59. Burning's Antiquit, Græc. p. 102.

the antient Greeks and Romans. In 2 Sam. i. 19. Saul is denominated the roe (in our version, rendered the beauty) of Israel; the force and beauty of which expression will be felt, when it is recollected that in the East, to this day, the hind and roe, the hart and antelope, continue to be held in high estimation for the delicate elegance of their form, or their graceful agility of action. In 2 Sam. ii. 18. we are told that Asahel was as light of foot as a wild roe;-a mode of expression perfectly synonymous with the epithet of IIodas wxus Axiλheus, the swift-footed Achilles, which is given by Homer to his hero, not fewer than thirty times in the course of the Iliad. David expressed his gratitude to God for making his feet like hind's feet for swiftness, and teaching his hands to war, so that a bow of steel was broken by his arms. (Psal. xviii. 33, 34.) The tribe of Benjamin could boast of a great number of brave men, who could use their right and left hands with equal dexterity (Judg. xx. 16. 1 Chron. xii. 2.), and who were eminent for their skill in the use of the bow and the sling. The men of war, out of the tribe of Gad, who came to David when persecuted by Saul, are described as being men of might, fit for the battle, that could handle shield and buckler, whose faces were like the faces of lions, and who were as swift as the roes upon the mountains. (1 Chron. xii. 8.)

VI. The Hebrews do not appear to have had any peculiar military habit. As the flowing dress, which they ordinarily wore, would have impeded their movements, they girt it closely around them, when preparing for battle, and loosened it on their return. (2 Sam. xx. 8. 1 Kings xx. 11.) They used the same arms as the neighbouring nations, both defensive and offensive, and these were made either of iron or of brass, principally of the latter metal. In the Scriptures we read of brazen shields, helmets, and bows; the helmet, greaves, and target of gigantic Goliath were all of brass, which was the metal chiefly used by the antient Greeks. The national museums of most countries contain abundant specimens of brazen arms, which have been rescued from the destroying hand of time. Originally, every man provided his own arms: but after the establishment of the monarchy, depots were formed, whence they were distributed to the men as occasion required. (2 Chron. xi. 12. xxvi. 14, 15.)

Of the Defensive Arms of the Hebrews, the following were the most remarkable, viz.

1. The Helmet y (KOBANG), for covering and defending the head. This was a part of the military provision made by Uzziah for his vast army (2 Chron. xxvi. 14.): and long before the time of that king, the helmets of Saul and of the Philistine champion were of brass. (1 Sam. xvii. 38. 5.) This military cap was also worn by the Persians, Ethiopians, and Lybians (Ezek. xxxviii. 5.), and

1 Calmet, in his elaborate Dissertation sur la Milice des Anciens Hebreus (Comment. tom. iii. p. 529.), has collected numerous examples from Homer, Hesiod, Virgil, and various other classic writers, in which brazen arms and armour are mentioned.

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