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however, only take those which fell in the year, and this year began at the month Elul, or the beginning of our August.

But the two years which are the most known are the Civil and Ecclesiastical Years.

3. The Civil Year commenced on the fifteenth of our September, because it was an old tradition that the world was created at that time. From this year the Jews computed their jubilees, dated all contracts, and noted the birth of children, and the reign of kings. It is said also, that this month was appointed for making war; because, the great heats being past, they then went into the field. In 2 Sam. xi. 1. we read that David sent Joab and his servants with him, and all Israel, to destroy the Ammonites, at the return of the year (marginal rendering), at the time when kings go forth to battle, that is, in the month of September. The annexed table exhibits the months of the Jewish civil year with the corresponding months of our computation :

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1. Nisan or Abib

(Neh. ii. 1. Esth. iii. 7.)

10. Thammuz

11. Ab

12. Elul

Some of the preceding names are still in use in Persia.

2. Jyar or Zif

3. Sivan (Esth. viii. 9.)

4. Thammuz

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5. Ab

6. Elul (Neh. vi. 15.)

7. Tisri

8. Marchesvan

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4. The Ecclesiatical or Sacred Year began in March, or on the first day of the month Nisan, because at that time they departed out of Egypt. From that month they computed their feasts, and the prophets also occasionally dated their oracles and visions. Thus Zechariah (vii. 1.) says that the word of the Lord came unto him in the fourth day of the ninth month, even in Chisleu; which answers to our November, whence it is evident that he adopted the ecclesiastical year, which commenced in March. The month Nisan is noted in the old Testament for the overflowings of Jordan (Josh. iii. 15. 1 Chron. xii. 15.); which were common at that season, the river being swollen by the melted snows that poured in torrents from Mount Lebanon. The following table presents the months of the Jewish ecclesiastical year, compared with our months:

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September and October.
October and November.
November and December.
December and January.
January and February.
February and March.
March and April.

April and May.

May and June.

June and July.

July and August.
August and September.

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The Jewish months being regulated by the phases or appearances of the moon, their years were consequently lunar years, consisting of twelve lunations, or 354 days and 8 hours; but as the Jewish festivals were held not only on certain fixed days of the month, but also at certain seasons of the year, consequently great confusion would, in process of time, arise by this method of calculating: the spring month sometimes falling in the middle of winter, it became necessary to accommodate the lunar to solar years, in order that their months, and consequently their festivals, might always fall at the same season. For this purpose, the Jews added a whole month to the year, as often as it was necessary; which occurred commonly once in three years, and sometimes once in two years. This intercalary month was added at the end of the ecclesiastical year after the month Adar, and was therefore called Ve-Adar or the second Adar.

As agriculture constituted the principal employment of the Jews, they also divided their natural year into seasons with reference to their rural work. These, we have seen, were six in number, each of two months' duration, including one whole month and the halves of two others. See an account of them in pp. 28-34 of this volume, under the Climate and Seasons of the Holy Land.

To this natural division of the year there are several allusions in the sacred writings: as in Jer. xxxvi. 22. where king Jehoiakim is said to be sitting in the winter-house in the ninth sacred month Chisleu, the latter half of which fell in the winter or rainy season; so, in Ezra x. 13. it is said that the congregation of the people, which had been convened on the twentieth day of the same month, were not able to stand out in the open air, because it was a time of much rain." The knowledge of this mode of dividing the year illustrates John x. 22, 23. and accounts for our Lord's walking in the portico of the temple at the feast of dedication, which was celebrated towards the close of the same month.

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Further, the Jews divided their solar year into four parts, called by them Tekuphat (that is, revolutions of time), or quarters, which they distinguished by the names of the months with which they commenced: thus, the vernal equinox is termed Tekuphat Nisan; the autumnal equinox, Tekuphat Tisri; the winter solstice, Tekuphat Tebeth; and the summer solstice, Tekuphat Thammuz. Some critics have conjectured that our Lord refers to the intervening space of four months, from the conclusion of seed-time to the commencement of the harvest, in John iv. 35.

The following CALENDAR will present to the reader a view of the entire JEWISH YEAR. It is abridged from father Lamy's Apparatus Biblicus,' with additions from the Calendar printed by Calmet, at the

1 Lamy's Apparatus Biblicus, vol. i. p. 155. et seq.

end of his Dictionary of the Bible. In it are inserted the festivals and fasts celebrated by the Jews; including not only those enacted by the law of Moses, and which are described in a subsequent part of this work, but likewise those which were not established until after the destruction of the temple, and those which are observed by the Jews to the present time. The lessons also are introduced which they were accustomed to read in the synagogues.-Those days, on which no festival or fast was celebrated, are designedly omitted.

1. TISRI, FORMERLY CALLED ETHANIM.

The FIRST month of the civil year, the SEVENTH month of the ecclesiastical year; it has thirty days, and corresponds with part of our September and October.

1. Rosch Haschana, the beginning of the civil year. The feast of trumpets, commanded in Leviticus. (Lev. xxiii. 24, 25. Num. xxix. 1. Jer. xli. 2.)

3. The fast of Gedaliah; because Gedaliah, the son of Ahikam, and all the Jews that were with him, were slain at Mizpah. (2 Kings xxv. 25.) This is the fast that Zechariah calls the fast of the seventh month. (Zech. viii. 19.)

5. A fast. Twenty Israelites were killed: Rabbi Akiba, the son of Joseph, was loaded with irons and died in prison.

7. A fast, appointed on account of the golden calf. (Exod. xxxii. 6, 7, 8.)

The lessons for this day were Deut. xxvi. 1. to Deut. xxix. and the lxth chapter of Isaiah.

10. The fast of expiation. (Lev. xxiii. 27.)

14. The lessons for this day were from Deut. xxix. 10. to Deut. xxxi. 1. when the year had most Sabbaths; and when fewest, the book was finished on this day. And from Isa. lxi. 1. to Isa. Ixiii. 10.

15. The feast of tabernacles. (Lev. xxiii. 34, 35.) It lasted seven days, exclusive of the octave, or eighth day.

21. Hosanna Rabba, the seventh day of the feast of tabernacles; or, the feast of branches.

The lessons for this day were from Gen. i. 1. to Gen. vi. 9. and from Isa. xlii.

5. to Isa. xliii. 11.

22. The octave of the feast of tabernacles. (Lev. xxiii. 36.)

23. The solemnity of the law, in memory of the covenant and death of Moses. On this day Solomon's dedication was finished. (1 Kings viii. 65.)

28. The lessons were from Gen. vi. 9. to Gen. xii. 1. and from Isa. liv. 1. to Isa. lv. 5.

30. On this day the lessons were from Gen. xii. 1. to Gen. xviii. 1. and from Isa. xl. 27. to Isa. xli. 17. This day is the fast held in commemoration of the murder of Gedaliah, whom Nebuchadnezzar made governor of Judæa, after he had destroyed Jerusalem, according to Dr. Prideaux.)1

2. MARCHESVAN.

The SECOND month of the civil year, the EIGHTH month of the ecclesiastical year; it has only twenty-nine days, and corresponds with part of our October and November.

1. The new moon. (Calmet observes (in the Jewish Calendar, at the end of his dictionary of the Bible) that the Jews always made two new moons for every 1 Connection, part i. book i. under the year 588.

month; the first of which was the last day of the preceding month; and the first day of the month was the second new moon of that month.)

3. The lessons for this day were from Gen. xviii. 1. to Gen. xxiii. 1. and from 2 Sam. iv. 1. to 2 Sam. iv. 38.

6. A fast, appointed on account of Zedekiah's having his eyes put out by the command of Nebuchadnezzar, after he had seen his children slain before his face. (2 Kings xxv. 7. Jer. lii. 10.)

8. The lessons for this day were from Gen. xxiii. 1. to Gen. xxv. 19. and from 1 Sam. i. 1. to 1 Sam. i. 32.

15. The lessons for this day were from Gen. xxv. 19. to Gen. xxviii. 10. and from Mal. i. 1. to Mal. ii. 8.

19. Fast to expiate the crimes committed on account of the feast of tabernacles. 23. A fast in memory of the stones of the altar which the Gentiles profaned, 1 Mac. iv. 46.

The lessons for this day were from Gen. xxviii. 10. to Gen. xxxii. 3. and from Hos. xi. 7. to Hos. xiv. 3.

25. A fast in memory of some places which the Cuthmans seized, and were recovered by the Israelites after the captivity.

In this month the Jews prayed for the rain, which they call Jore, or the autumnal rain, which was very seasonable for their seed. Genebrard pretends that they did not ask for this rain till the next month. Perhaps there might be no stated time for asking for it; that might depend upon their want of it. The Jews say it was in October; and it was called in general the autumnal rain, which season lasted three months.

3. CHISLEU, OR CASLEU.

The THIRD month of the civil year, the NINTH month of the ecclesiastical year; it has thirty days, and corresponds with part of our November and December.

1. The new moon.

2. Prayers for rain.

3. A feast in memory of the idols, which the Asmoneans threw out of the temple. 6. The lessons for this day were, from Gen. xxxii. 3. to Gen. xxxvii. 1. and the whole book of Obadiah, or from Hos. xii. 12. to the end of the book.

7. A fast, instituted because king Jehoiakim burned the prophecy of Jeremiah, which Baruch had written. (Jer. xxxvi. 23.) This fast Dr. Prideaux places on the 29th of this month. But Calmet places it on the sixth of this month, and makes the seventh of this month a festival, in memory of the death of Herod the Great, the son of Antipater. Scaliger will have it that it was instituted on account of Zedekiah's having his eyes put out, after his children had been slain in his sight.

10. The lessons for this day were from Gen. xxxvii. 1. to Gen. xli. 1. and from Amos ii. 6. to Amos iii. 9.

17. The lessons for this day were from Gen. xli. 1. to Gen. xliv. 18. and from 1 Sam. iii. 15. to the end of the chapter.

25. The dedication of the temple. This feast lasted eight days.

The lessons for this day were from Gen. xliv. 18. to Gen. xlvii. 27. and from Ezek. xxxvii. 15. to the end of the chapter.

4. THEBETH, OR TEBETH.

The FOURTH month of the civil year, the TENTH month of the ecclesiastical year; it has but twenty-nine days, and corresponds with part of our December and January.

1. The new moon.

3. The lessons for this day were from Gen. xlvii. 27. to the end of the book, and the thirteen first verses of the second chapter of the first book of Samuel.

VOL. III.

1 Connection, part i. book i. under the year 685.

23

8. A fast on account of the translation of the Bible into Greek. Philo, in his Life of Moses, says, that the Jews of Alexandria celebrated a feast on this day, in memory of the 72 Interpreters. But the Jews at present abominate that version.

9. A fast, the reason of which is not mentioned by the Rabbins.

10. A fast on account of the siege which the king of Babylon laid to Jerusalem. (2 Kings xxv.)

11. The lessons were the five first chapters of Exodus, and with them from Isa. xxvii. 6. to Isa. xxvii. 14. or else from Jer. i. 1. to Jer. ii. 4.

17. The lessons for this day were from Exod. vi. 1. to Exod. x. 1. and from Ezek. xxviii. 25. to Ezek. xxx. 1.

25. The lessons for this day were from Exod. x. 1. to Exod, xiii. 17. and from Jer. xlvi. 13. to the end of the chapter.

28. A fast in memory of Rabbi Simeon's having driven the Sadducees out of the Sanhedrin, where they had the upper hand in the time of Alexander Jannæus ; and his having introduced the Pharisees in their room.

5. SEBAT, SHEVET, OR SHEBAT.

The FIFTH month of the civil year, the ELEVENTH month of the ecclesiastical year; it has thirty days, and corresponds with part of our January and February.

1. The new moon. In this month the Jews began to reckon the years of the trees which they planted, whose fruit was not to be eaten till after they had been planted three years. Calmet fixes the beginning of this year of trees to the 15th day of this month.

2. A rejoicing for the death of Alexander Jannæus.

3. Now is read from Exod. xiii. 17. to Exod. xviii. 1. and from Jud. iv. 4. to Judg. vi. 1.

A fast in memory of the death of the elders who succeeded Joshua. Jud. ii. 10. 8. A fast, because on this day died the just men who lived in the days of Joshua. (Judg. ii. 10.)

10. The lessons were from Exod. xviii. 1. to Exod. xxi. 1. and the whole sixth chapter of Isaiah.

17. The lessons for this day were from Exod. xxi. 1. to Exod. xxv. 1. and Jer. xxxiv. from v. 8. to the end of the chapter.

23 A fast in memory of the insurrection of the other tribes against that of Ben. jamin, on account of the death of the Levite's wife. (Judg. xx.)

26. Now is read, from Exod. xxv. 1. to Exod. xxvii. 20. and from 1 Sam. v. 12. to 1 Sam. vi. 14.

29. Now is read from Exod. xxvii. 20. to Exod. xxx. 11. and Ezek. xliii. from the 10th verse to the end of the chapter.

6. ADAR.

The SIXTH month of the civil year, the TWELFTH month of the ecclesiastical year; it has only twenty-nine days, and corresponds with part of our February and March.

1. The new moon. Genebrard places the first fruits on this day.

3. The lessons for this day were from Exod. xxx. 11. to Exod. xxxv. 1. and from 1 Sam. xviii. 1. to 1 Sam. xviii. 39.

7. A fast on account of the death of Moses, the lawgiver of the Jews. (Deut. xxxiv. 5, 6.)

9. A fast. The schools of Schammai and Hillel began to be divided on this day. 12. The lessons are from Exod. xxxv. 1. to Exod. xxxxiii. 21. and from 1 Sam. xvii. 13. to 1 Sam. xvii. 26. (This day is also a feast in memory of the death of Hollianus and Pipus, two Proselytes and brothers, who chose rather to die than violate the Law.)

13. A festival on account of the death of Nicanor. (2 Mac. xv. 37.) Gen. places the fast of Esther (Est. iv. 16.) on this day.

14. Purim the first, or the Little Feast of Lots.

1 Selden, 1. 3. c. 13. de Syned. ex Megill, Taanith. Calmet's Calend.

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