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the eleventh century), whenever he appeared abroad, was preceded by seven hundred horsemen with silver battle-axes, and was followed by an equal number bearing maces of gold. He was a great patron of poetry, and it was he who used to preside at public exercises of genius, with four basins of gold and silver by him to distribute among the poets who excelled." — (Richardson's "Dissertation," prefixed to his Dictionary.)
P. 23.-Gilt pine-apples.-"The kubdeh, a large golden knob, generally in the shape of a pine-apple, on the top of the canopy over the litter or palanquin."-(Scott's "Notes on the Babardanush.")
P. 23.-The Princess's own sumptuous litter.-In the poem of "Zohair," in the "Moallakat," there is the following lively description of "a company of maidens seated on camels":
"They are mounted in carriages covered with costly awnings, and with rose-coloured veils, the linings of which have the hue of crimson Andem-wood.
"When they ascend from the bosom of the vale, they sit forward on the saddle-cloth, with every mark of a voluptuous gayety.
"Now, when they have reached the brink of yon bluegushing rivulet, they fix the poles of their tents like the Arab with a settled mansion."
P. 23. With feathers of the Argus pheasant's wing.-See Bernier's description of the attendants on Raucha-nara Begum, in her progress to Cashmere.
P. 24.-Aurungzebe was a munificent protector.-This hypocritical Emperor would have made a worthy associate of certain Holy Leagues. "He held the cloak of religion," says Dow, between his actions and the vulgar; and impiously thanked the Divinity for a success which he owed to his own wickedness. When he was murdering and persecuting his brothers and their families, he was building a magnificent mosque at Delhi, as an offering to God for his assistance to him in the civil wars. He acted as high priest at the consecration of this temple; and made a practice of attending Divine service there, in the humble dress of a Fakeer. But when he lifted one hand to the Divinity, he, with the other, signed
warrants for the assassination of his relations."—(" History of Hindostan," vol. iii. p. 335.) See also the curious letter of Aurungzebe, given in the "Oriental Collections," vol. i. p. 320.
P. 24. The diamond eyes of the Idol of Jaghernaut."The idol at Jaghernaut has two fine diamonds for eyes. No goldsmith is suffered to enter the Pagoda, one having stolen one of these eyes, being locked up all night with the Idol."— (Tavernier.)
P. 24.-Royal Gardens of Delhi.-See a description of these Royal Gardens in "An Account of the Present State of Delhi," by Lieut. W. Franklin; Asiatic Researches," vol. iv. p. 417.
P. 24.-Lake of Pearl.-"In the neighbourhood is Notte Gill, or the Lake of Pearl, which receives this name from its pellucid water."-(Pennant's "Hindostan.")
"Nasir Jung, encamped in the vicinity of the Lake of Tonoor, amused himself with sailing on that clear and beautiful water, and gave it the fanciful name of Motee Talah, 'the Lake of Pearls,' which it still retains."-(Wilke's "South of India.")
P. 24. One from the Isles of the West.-Sir Thomas Roe, Ambassador from James I. to Jehan-Guire.
P. 25.-The loves of Wamak and Ezra.-"The romance Wemakweazra, written in Persian verse, which contains the loves of Wamak and Ezra, two celebrated lovers who lived before the time of Mahomet."-(Note on the "Oriental Tales.")
P. 25.-Zal and his mistress Rodahver.-Their amour is recounted in the Shah-Namêh of Ferdousi; and there is much beauty in the passage which describes the slaves of Rodahver sitting on the bank of the river, and throwing flowers into the stream, in order to draw the attention of the young Hero who is encamped on the opposite side.-(See Champion's translation.)
P. 25.-The Combat of Rustam.-Rustam is the Hercules of the Persians. For the particulars of his victory over the
Sepeed Deeve, or White Demon, see Oriental Collections," vol. ii. p. 45.
"Near the city of Shirauz is an immense quadrangular monument, in commemoration of this combat, called the Kelaat-i-Deev Sepeed, or castle of the White Giant, which Father Angelo, in his "Gazophilacium Persicum," p. 127, declares to have been the most memorable monument of antiquity which he had seen in Persia."-(See Ouseley's "Persian Miscellanies.")
P. 25.-Tinkling of their golden anklets.—“The women of the Idol, or dancing girls of the Pagoda, have little golden bells fastened to their feet, and the soft harmonious tinkling of which vibrates in unison with the exquisite melody of their voices." (Maurice's "Indian Antiquities.")
"The Arabian courtesans, like the Indian women, have little golden bells fastened round their legs, neck, and elbows, to the sound of which they dance before the King. The Arabian princesses wear golden rings on their fingers, to which little bells are suspended, as well as in the flowing tresses of their hair, that their superior rank may be known, and they themselves receive in passing the homage due to them."(See Calmet's Dictionary, art. "Bells.")
P. 25.-That delicious opium.-" Abou-Tige, ville de la Thébaïde, où il croit beaucoup de pavot noir, dont se fait le meilleur opium."-(D'Herbelot.)
P. 26.-Crishna.-The Indian Apollo. "He and the three Rámas are described as youths of perfect beauty; and the princesses of Hindustán were all passionately in love with Crishna, who continues to this hour the darling God of the Indian women."-(Sir W. Jones on the Gods of Greece, Italy, and India.)
P.26.-The shawl-goats of Tibet.-See Turner's " Embassy for a description of this animal, "the most beautiful among the whole tribe of goats." The material for the shawls (which is carried to Cashmere) is found next the skin.
P. 27.-Veiled Prophet of Khorassan.-For the real history of this Impostor, whose original name was Hakem ben Has
chem, and who was called Mokanna from the veil of silver gauze (or, as others say, golden) which he always wore, see
P. 29.-Province of the Sun.—“Khorassan signifies, in the old Persian language, Province or Region of the Sun."—(Sir W. Jones.)
P. 29.-Flowerets and fruits.-"The fruits of Meru are finer than those of any other place; and one cannot see in any other city such palaces with groves, and streams, and gardens."-(Ebn Haukal's Geography.)
P. 29.-Merou.-One of the royal cities of Khorassan.
P. 29.-When down the Mount he trod.-"Ses disciples assuroient qu'il se couvroit le visage, pour ne pas éblouir ceux qui l'approchoient par l'éclat de son visage comme Moyse." -(D'Herbelot.)
P. 30.-The Caliph's hue of night.-Black was the colour adopted by the Caliphs of the House of Abbas, in their garments, turbans, and standards.-"Il faut remarquer ici touchant les habits blancs des disciples de Hakem, que la colour des habits, des coiffures et des étendards des Khalifes Abassides étant la noire, ce chef de Rebelles ne pouvoit pas choisir une qui lui fût plus opposée."-(D'Herbelot.)
P. 30.-Javelins of the light Kathaian reed.—“Our dark javelins, exquisitely wrought of Khathaian reeds, slender and delicate."-(Poem of "Amru.")
P. 30.-The stems that bloom on Iran's rivers.-Pichula, used anciently for arrows by the Persians. The Persians call this plant Gaz. The celebrated shaft of Isfendiar, one of their ancient heroes, was made of it.—"Nothing can be more beautiful than the appearance of this plant in flower during the rains on the banks of rivers, where it is usually interwoven with a lovely twining asclepias."-(Sir W. Jones, "Botanical Observations on Select Indian Plants.")
P. 30.-Chenar-tree.-The Oriental plane. "The chenar is a delightful tree; its bole is of a fine white and smooth bark;
and its foliage, which grows in a tuft at the summit, is of a bright green."-(Morier's Travels.)
P. 31.-Brahma's burning founts.-The burning fountains of Brahma near Chittagong, esteemed as holy.-(Turner.)
P. 31.-Like tulip-beds.-" The name of tulip is said to be of Turkish extraction, and given to the flower on account of its resembling a turban."—(Beckmann's "History of Inventions.")
P. 31.-Fur-bound bonnet of Bucharian shape.—“The inhabitants of Bucharia wear a round cloth bonnet, shaped much after the Polish fashion, having a large fur border. They tie their kaftans about the middle with a girdle of a kind of silk crape, several times round the body."—(Account of Independent Tartary, in Pinkerton's Collection.)
P. 32.-O'erwhelm'd in fight and captive to the Greek.-In the war of the Caliph Mahadi against the Empress Irene, for an account of which see Gibbon, vol. x.
P. 33.-The flying throne of star-taught Soliman.-This wonderful throne was called the Star of the Genii. For a full description of it, see the Fragment, translated by Captain Franklin, from a Persian MS. entitled, "The History of Jerusalem," (" Oriental Collections," vol. i. p. 235.)—When Soliman travelled, the Eastern writers say, "He had a carpet of green silk on which his throne was placed, being of a prodigious length and breadth, and sufficient for all his forces to stand upon, the men placing themselves on his right hand, and the spirits on his left; and that when all were in order, the wind, at his command, took up the carpet, and transported it, with all that were upon it, wherever he pleased; the army of birds at the same time flying over their heads, and forming a kind of canopy to shade them from the sun.' -(Sale's Koran, vol. ii. p. 214, note.)
P. 33.-In every chance and change.-The transmigration of souls was one of Mokanna's doctrines.-(See D'Herbelot.)