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and when, abroad, unhappily a want of humility and sense of propriety do occur, there is, on the Independent system, no authority nor Christian community to repress them; and since old experienced servants may not always think it for the good of the service to submit, even to a majority of young and inexperienced ones, disunion occurs, and merely individual effort is presented to the enemy, instead of a close and well directed phalanx, continuously filled up by new men, as disaster or death may thin the ranks.*
I am greatly in favour of Missionary communities,† with a diversity of talent and acquirement, of age and of sex, not even excluding lay brethren,‡ for the superinten
* "In Missionary establishments the greatest care should be taken in giving to every man his proper department, and in preserving a general co-operation in all their efforts. Each Missionary should guard against pertinacity of opinion, and the encouraging of those habits of fastidious delicacy which grow upon men, who are accustomed in all things to consult only their private feelings. Unless we can resolve on this sacrifice we are not qualified to act in Missions." (MELVILLE HORNE.) "For as we have many members in one body, and all members have not the same office: so we being many, are one body in Christ, and every one members one of another: having then gifts differing according to the grace that is given to us, whether prophesy, let us prophesy according to the proportion of faith; or ministry, let us wait on our ministering: or he that teacheth, on teaching or he that exhorteth, on exhortation: he that giveth, let him do it with simplicity; he that ruleth, with diligence; he that sheweth mercy, with cheerfulness. Let love be without dissimulation. Abhor that which is evil; cleave to that which is good. Be kindly affectioned one to another with brotherly love; in honour preferring one another.” (PAUL.)
"To procure a large supply of Missionaries, I propose that an equal number of pious lay brethren should be employed in every Mission, as school-masters, transcribers, exhorters, and to assist in all the emergencies of the Mission, to which Missionaries may not be able to give attention The young and inexperienced would derive instruction and support from their elder brethren, and after a few years trial they might be promoted to the honourable station of Missionaries. Such an establishment would be the best seminary of education for Missions, and with occasional helps from Europe, be sufficient for all demands." (MELVILLE HORNE.)
dence of secular affairs, and perhaps by industry for the sustenance of the Mission; whilst all persons of the community co-operate to promote Christian knowledge, and all its temporal affairs are made subservient to the propagation of the Gospel. Not, however, to such a degree as to interfere with private property; but so as to destroy all selfishness and individualism; presenting not dislocated members, but a Body complete and efficient, either for support, or defence, or useful and benevolent exertion.
QUALIFICATIONS AND DUTIES
DIRECTORS OR MANAGING COMMITTEES
"In these (Missionary) Associations, I wish those Ministers to come forward whose character and services give them most respectability; and having once engaged, I would have the Association to be actuated by a true spirit, of Missions. They should be zealous, active, indefatigable. Any Minister who is not warmly affected to Missions, should be excluded from the acting Committee. What these Gentlemen are, their Missions will be." (MELVILLE HORNE.)
A MODERN Missionary Society has not any exact exemplar in Holy Scripture, nor does it resemble in its nature any Political or Commercial Association; and therefore the rules and usages which suit these, will not necessarily suit it. If, indeed, they be inconsiderately applied, they may injure it. As for example, the assumption that a Missionary Society resembles a Commercial Association, may introduce a relative distinction between the Subscribers, the Managing Committee, (by some not very happily, perhaps, called Directors,) and the foreign Evangelists, subversive entirely of the Christian relation and spirit of love which ought to pervade all who are connected
with a Missionary Society. The first principle of Commercial Association is individual temporal advantage; the first principle of Missionary Association is the spiritual and eternal welfare of others. The foreign Agents of Commercial Societies engage in the service for their own private emolument, and properly stand in the relation of servants; the foreign Ministers of Missionary Societies engage, without reward, to carry into effect the benevolent designs of associated Christians, and subscribe to the cause their personal services. They are then Fellowlabourers with the Subscribers and their Managing Representatives at home. As disciples of our Lord Jesus Christ, all are equal at the time of their association; and a spirit of devotion to the MASTER, of reciprocal affection to each other, and of good will to men, constitute the only proper impulse to their association, and the only principle on which they should ever continue to act. There is no period at which this equality should cease. They have no affairs to keep secret from each other; no separate or private ends to promote. They do not stand in the relation of master and servant, employer and employed. They should all have but one end; they should meet in one common council. Mutual confidence, esteem, and affection, are essential to the well-being of the association: nay, are essential to the maintenance of its Christian character.
In secular Associations, the dissevering tendencies of reciprocal jealousies will be overcome by the impulse of private interest; but in a benevolent Association, where there is, in fact, no private interest to serve, mutual jealousies and distrust are ruinous to the whole concern. The subscription of personal service from a man whom the Association does not esteem, and in whom it cannot confide, had better not be accepted; and the Committeeservices of a narrow-minded, money-loving pietist had better not be requested. When the Missionary Class are treated as mere Employés, or hirelings, good men will not join them, and they will gradually become mere mercenaries
and there will be complaints of domination and niggardliness on the one hand, and of rebellion and extravagance on the other; and the spirit of piety will decay, and the love of Christ, which is the soul of Missions, will wax cold-an evil in this enterprize, of much more magnitude than the diminution of funds, or any other which affects not the vital principle.
1. A Director should, we conceive, be like a Missionary, a man of unfeigned piety, conversant with intellectual, spiritual, and eternal realities. A worldly or secularized, merely mercantile mind, that places literary, moral, and religious considerations far behind in the back ground, whilst pecuniary matters are exalted to the chief place and to the highest influence, is unfit for directing the affairs of a Religious Society; because the moral apparatus of wellqualified Ministers, Teachers, and Preachers; Books, Schools, Colleges, and Chapels, will be kept out of the service, for the sake of pecuniary savings.
2. A Director should, like a Missionary, be a devoted disciple of the Lord Jesus. His doings as a Director should be considered as done to the Lord, and not to man. If he look no higher than serving "the public," and consider his gratuitous service as what may either be done or left undone, he is not fit for a Director.
3. He should not consider himself as a Lord over (God's) heritage (τwv kλnpwv), i. e. (as some would say,) the "Clerks or Clergy;" but as an example to the whole Christian flock; and as a Father or a Brother to his fellowservants in distant lands. If they are prosperous and successful, he will no doubt rejoice with them; this is easy: but also if they be unprosperous, and unsuccessful, he will sympathize with them; and if they backslide, he will mourn over them with true sorrow, as a father or a brother would do. If they write unwise letters, recording petty strifes, &c. (for who is wise at all times,) he will reprove and admonish, but not scorn them.
The devout men and women in the land, who supply the funds of Missionary Societies, cherish, no doubt, the kindest possible feelings to good Missionaries; but these