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creatures, which reflections often wear an air of impiety to God, and injustice to men.

The progress of navigation and geography, which enable so many persons to circumnavigate the globe and visit all countries, tends much to the development of the philanthropic spirit, which our text suggests. The hideous and distorted pictures formerly drawn of the rest of the nations, either by ignorance or artifice, as well as the representations of savage innocence, have, in all cases proved untrue, and human nature is found much the same in every land. It is depraved, and vicious, and degraded by superstition; but it is improvable by the diffusion of knowledge, by human kindness, and can be renewed by the grace of God. The objection of a frigid infidelity, that some tribes of men are sunk so low, that they cannot be raised, and that some are so invincibly attached to their idols, and their superstitions, and their vicious usages, that they can never be changed, has no foundation in truth. Esquimaux and Hottentots, New Hollanders and Otaheiteans, Negroes and Sandwich Islanders, Tartars and Hindoos, and Chinese, have all of them yielded to the kindness of men, the grace of the Saviour, and the mercy of God; and have been changed, and civilized, and sanctified, and glorified.

The great point yet to be gained is, to induce the Christian Churches to use somewhat proportionate means to communicate spiritual benefits to the rest of their brethren of mankind.

None will dispute the doctrine which we have laid at the foundation of this discourse, viz. the kindredship of all mankind; but many will argue that Christians should pretty much confine their attention to their own country, i. e. to those of their brethren of mankind, who live under the same civil government.

But does Christianity sanction or inculcate this sentiment?

Before the call of Abraham, i. e. during the first two thousand years of the world's existence, there was no distinction made in Heaven's dispensations amongst the nations of the earth. And the separation of one small

country from the rest of the world, was a temporary arrangement made by divine Providence to preserve truth in the earth till Messiah should come. Around the Jews a partition wall was set up, but Jesus broke it down. Was God the God of the Jews only? or was he not also the God of the Gentiles? Is Jesus the Saviour of the Jews only? or the Saviour of men only, who live under some one civil Government? Is he not declared to be given as the Saviour of the world; and is it not promised that all nations shall serve him? I enter not this day into the disputes of theologians, concerning what they call general and particular redemption; for it is not necessary to my argument, since they all agree that the redemption which is in Jesus, extends to some of all nations, peoples, and languages.

And as the design of this salvation is not confined to any one country, so the command of Zion's king to his people is, not to confine their notification of his redeeming work to any one country, but to go into all the world and proclaim the Gospel to every human creature. I am aware that the pagan notions of patriotism are commonly received in our land, and are warmly advocated by a spirit of selfish aggrandizement; and that infidels have charged the religion of Jesus with not inculcating the virtue of patriotism. I acknowledge the charge to be true; I believe it does not inculcate the commonly received notion of patriotism. And although wise and good men think otherwise, and perhaps sneer at the expression, I do believe, that the religion of Jesus, properly understood, makes men citizens of the world. It calls upon them not to confine their attention, or their benevolent efforts, only to persons who live under the same civil government with themselves; but to extend their attention, and their care, and their benevolent concern to all human beings whom their Creator has made of the same blood as themselves; who occupy, as well as themselves, a part of their heavenly Father's wide domain; who, as well as themselves, live under his government, and if living under one and the same government, impose duties on men, shall Christians reject the government of God, and deny the duties owing to their fellow subjects in his

empire! Shall Christians limit or extend their concern and their efforts to promulgate Christ's Gospel, just as human governments may be narrowed or extended!

I anı persuaded, that few or none will advocate such a cause, or such a sentiment; but they may argue, that as our facilities are generally greater in our own neighbourhood, and in our own country, our efforts to do good must begin, and be proportionably greater there: and to this modification of duty, I see no reason to object; but still argue, that the degree of attention and care given by Christian Churches to the rest of mankind, is very far below what the necessities of our brethren of mankind require; and which our relation to them, as well as the commands of our Saviour, make it the duty of Christians to give.

It is true, that there are now a few voluntary associations of pious individuals throughout the united kingdom, who make, of late years, some small efforts to send Christianity to the pagan world; and there is much said of an old society, for diffusing Christian knowledge in the British colonies. But what, after all, have the national churches of England and Scotland done, to carry into effect the divine precept, Go and proclaim the Gospel to all the world? What has this Christian state, which insists on being united with the church, and in which union the national church glories;-what has it done, from the impulse of Christian benevolence, for the rest of the nations? Where is the fraternal feeling amongst the nations of Christendom, which Christiany requires of them towards each other, and towards the rest of those national families which are made up of God's offspring on the face of the earth? The eternal feuds and wars of these Christian states in Europe, which are its disgrace in the regions of paganism, and which prove they have no just claim to the Christian name, call forth an immense degree of effort, and of zeal, and of devotedness, and of pecuniary sacrifice, and of personal service; in comparison of which, oh how languid, and feeble, and niggardly, and cowardly, are all the efforts to do good to the rest of mankind, which have yet been made by the self-called Christian world.


small society of Christians, called Moravians, seem to have made benevolent efforts for the rest of the nations, pretty much the business of their lives; but the more spiritual and most devoted Christians of other Protestant Churches, have as yet done scarcely any thing beyond the limits of their respective civil governments.

I am very well aware of the difficulty of doing good to a fellow-creature, whose heart is under the influence of Satan, the great enemy of man; whose heart is itself enmity against God, and who does not love his neighbour, but himself only. I am not ignorant of the difficulties which the selfishness, and the animosities of ambitious Rulers of nations; and the avarice, and lust, and irregularities of foreign visitors, have created and thrown in the way of benevolent efforts for the rest of mankind. And difficulties also arising from things not criminal, as distance of place, insalubrious climates, differences of language, and of all the habitudes of life.

The difficulties are, indeed, many-they are not denied; but it is maintained, that they are not insurmountable; that duty is generally difficult, and not to be neglected because difficult. Difficulties, moreover, give way before sincerity and perseverance in the use of means. Heaven's blessing, and Heaven's help, are sent down on men who attempt honestly and humbly to perform a duty. And it should be observed, that benevolent efforts are so rare in the world, people cannot be all at once convinced that professions of benevolent design are sincere. When the late Dr. Milne, a Missionary to the Chinese, first opened gratuitous schools for Chinese youths, the parents suspected he had some bad design, cloaked over with the pretext of benevolence, and they hesitated to allow their children to attend and receive instruction; but patient perseverance, and the non-appearance of any malevolent tendency, gradually convinced them that the design was good, and that the foreign missionary was really a benevolent man; and they now

Although the writer considers the brethren amiable and useful, and worthy of sympathy and aid; he yet thinks their discipline not fitted for general adoption.

send their children with confidence, and from the villages come and solicit the establishment of new schools. The human understanding is, indeed, very much blinded, and the human heart is very hard; but still the light of truth can be, though dimly, distinguished and ascertained, and kindness can soften, and grace can melt the heart. The truth is, benevolence has so rarely led men to foreign climes from the nations of Christendom, that the rest of the nations have a right to be suspicious of them; but the real Christians have no good reason to infer, that because avarice, ambition, and other crimes that might be named, are unwelcome visitors in pagan lands, that, therefore, unfeigned benevolence will, when really ascertained, be likewise unwelcome. However, it will require time to enable the nations to see and test the reality of professed benevolence. But,

There is another view of the subject which must be taken, and which makes Christian Missions binding on the churches, whatever the difficulties may be, or whatever the reception given them may be. According to divine revelation, the whole world of human beings is guilty before God, and justly subject to a penalty greater than human language can describe. From the Court of Heaven, a pardon is proclaimed to every one that confesses his guilt and renounces his crimes. Of the way that this pardon has been procured, it is not now necessary to speak. The Divine Redeemer came from heaven and proclaimed this pardon to the nation of the Jews, and left a standing order to all who accepted of it themselves, to proclaim it to others. If I be asked why he did not himself visit every land, and proclaim the good tidings?—I confess my ignorance; I do not know why Heaven chooses to make one man the medium of temporal and spiritual good to another; but I do know that such questions, proceeding from a weak and wicked creature, and disputing the goodness and justice of God, indicate a presumptuous and impious spirit. The commandments of a father are not to be disobeyed and neglected, because an infant child cannot discern their fitness. Much less, may the commandments of the eternal

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