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ny, oppofing the will of nature's God. Agriculture has made a won derful progress in several countries, since it became the businefs and favourite amusement of philosophers and men of taste. great advantage from the many excellent writings on this subject in the English, French, German, and Swedish languages; but much improvement is yet wanting in every part of this noble science. Besides, our local circumstances require in some cases peculiar methods. The United States extend through several climates; and the general irregularity of the seasons mingles the diversity of climate in every state: Pennsylvania f. e. has often within two or three months the climates of Sweden, England, and Italy. This points out the propriety of adopting fome practices from different countries, and establishing others as our own.
On our tillage the following remarks appear to me very interesting:The succession of severe frosts and deep thaws during winter in all the northern and middle states makes a variety of drains necessary in most foils and situations; yet an almost general neglect of this destroys a great part of the feed: a judicious treatise on the forms and courses of such drains would be very useful. A large portion of the arable lands in this and some other states being hilly, is detrimentally washed by heavy rains in every season of the year: especially is the manure thereby totally loft. This would be much prevented by transverse ploughing in a proper degree of horizontal inclination, which may be traced by computing the force and quantity of the water..
The Indian corn * is an effential article among American grains; and peculiarly suitable to an extensive country. It might be raised at fo moderate a price as to bear exportation to Europe; in the northern parts of which it would be very valuable as nourishment for domestic animals during the long winter. The mode of planting this grain by four or five seeds together in hills at the distance of several feet, appears less reasonable from the consideration, that one part of the ground is left vacant, while the other is over charged; that the contiguous stalks muft impede each other; that their spindling height, and close position subjects them more to the high winds, which not unfrequently sweep down whole fields. I am informed by natives of Italy, that in that country the corn is planted so as to cover the ground equally, with convenient intervals for weeding
The culture of meadows has gained a considerable perfection in the middle states; but still is capable of much improvement. We must dis
cover Maize or zea.
cover a mode of banking effectual against the floods that often ruin the best marih-meadows: in open situations a close row of some aquatic trees 'beyond the bank is indispenfible for breaking the force of a stormy tide. We want grasses that will flourish in dry and sandy soils: such f. e. as were lately introduced in Spain, and are said to have proved so beneficial 'to that dry and warm country.
The heat of our summers is unfavourable to grass, where the ground, though fertile, has not a degree of moisture; it is therefore adviseable to try, whether barley, rye, or wheat, if cüt young, would make good hay; and whether a second crop or the succeeding pasture, may help to 'make a full compensation for an eventual harvest? I remember to have heard this method much recommended by some cultivators in a European country. The division of pasture grounds by enclosures is generally neglected. Clean feeding is an advantage of admitting cattle, horses, and sheep in rotation, that deserves attention.
The value of land, and close neighbourhood, makes good fences very necessary in old settlements. Worm-fencing and similar expedients of infant cultivation, should never be feen; they occasion losses, vexation and contention. The regular frames of rails and boards would be much improved by hardening against heat and moisture: to render the lower part of the post more durable, burning, encrusting with mortar, and soaking in salt water, are expedients partly used, and worthy of trial. Live hedges are in general preferable to any, but yet very rare; though the country presents many shrubs of promising qualities.
The vast domains of the United States can vie with any country in the variety, utility, and beauty of trees and shrubs. Our stately foreits are a national treasure, deserving the solicitous care of the patriotic philosopher and politician. Hitherto they have been too much abandoned to the axes of rude and thoughtless wood-choppers. What person of sense and feeling can without indignation behold millions of young oaks and hickories destroyed, to make bonfires in open smoaky houses, or trucked in the cities for foreign toys! some parts of Europe were thus laid waste in former centuries; and the present generations must with great labour and expense repair the ravages of their forefathers. In many parts of this country a preservation and encrease of the timber for fuel and other domestic uses renders these queries important.—What trees are of the quickest growth? at what age do they encreafe most? what is the proper distance between them? what is the best mode of pruning, for
( x) promoting the growth, and taking off all superfluous branches? what kinds are suitable to different soils ? what species thrive beft together? a judicious lopping of the branches, thinning close the clumps of trees, and clearing the ground of underwood, will make many woodlands good pastures, and form them into beautiful parks. This management would also improve the quality of timber by procuring the benefit of fun and air: the want of this may be regarded as one principal cause of the spunginess of our timber, which defect fo inimical to durability, strength,. and preservation of a given form, is further encreased by a too common ignorance or neglect of the proper season for selling the materials of building, furniture, staves and various utensils., Some valuable trees and shrubs are yet obscurely known: among these the so called coffee-tree * in the western country, that bears, a hard nut, the kernel of which is generally used by the inhabitants as a substitute for coffee; the native plumb trees on the Mislilippi, said to be far superior to those in the middle states; the newly discovered and much extolled grape of Scioto.t Many of those which have long been familiar to us, still possess useful qualities little explored. Oil might be extracted from acorns, and especially from the large and greasy species of the chesnut-oak; as lately, though bụt in few places, is done from the various kinds of walnuts. Spirits may be distilled from the berries of the red cedar, which so much ressemble those of the European Juniper.. Wine far better, than what is generally done, can be made from the late grapes, as I know by my own experiments. From all kinds of grapes, the Persimon fruit, the berries of the four-gum, & and white-thorn,s the crab-apple, the wildpears, plumbs, and cherries, with similar fruits, spirituous liquor, and vinegar may be obtained. This white-thorn will, if it can be kept close and low, make an impenetrable and beautiful hedge, by its long sharp and solid spears, and by its clustering blossoms and large red berries. The new experiment of grafting foreign kinds on our native grape-wines, said to be very promising, may prove a good preservative against the rigour of winter. In all probability many species of leaves would make good fodder for cattle, if gathered in the proper season, and well cured : this expedient practised in the north of Europe* is of great importance to one half of the American states, which have according to situation no pasture
for Guilandia. + A branch of the Ohio. Nyfla. Crus gally. Alpin Içaves f. e. are a plcaling and salutary food for horses.
(xi) for five à seven months. Finally we may sincerely wish that the owners of venerable woodlands might regard them as principal ornaments of their country; and while they clear a part for the purposes of agriculture, leave thofe hills crowned with towering pines, and stately oaks; suffering likes wife the groves of tulip-trees and magnolias to wave among yellow harvests and blooming meadows. In some of the old countries many gentlemen would purchase such rural charms at any expense, but must wait till the evening of life for the shade of their plantations; is it not then deplorable, that so many American farmers daily destroy what their offspring of better taste will deeply regret! this evil might in a great measure be lefsened by a treatise on ornamental planting adapted to the present circumstances of this country
Half a century ago, philosophers thought it beneath them to investigate the economy of domestic animals. By this ridiculous pride European countries have suffered much. The Swedish naturalists were rousa ed near thirty years ago, to a serious attention, by a pestilence among horses and horned cattle, which destroyed many thousands in some provinces. In America, this important science has been much neglected. Not to enlarge upon a subject which especially concerns agricultural societies, I shall only mention two or three particulars—This country is not unfavourable to horses ; yet those of good quality are not very common, because the natural history of these noble animals is but little cultivated. They are often disabled by want of proper care ; and perish by various disorders; especially by swelling in the throat, cholic, and the botts.* Sheep thrive well in some parts, but in others I have seen them die by dozens, without the owners knowing or inquiring into the cause.
Horned cattle suffer much when exposed to the winter's cold, which destroys their hoofs even under the 39 degree. Both they and horses are affected by excess of heat in fummer: which not feldom causes a fever, discernible by their want of appetite, dullness, and a yellow tinge of the mouth and eyes. The best European treatises on domestic animals will more or less apply to diverse parts of this country: a book written on sheep, in Swedish, by Haftfer, has great merit, and is applicable to the colder states.
Goats would be very valuable in the rocky woodlands of America, as they are in those of Europe. They are very hardy: their maintenance is cheap, as they browse summer and winter on most kinds of trees and
A kind of worms that devours their maw,
shrubs : they yield a great quantity of rich milk : and their skins are, very useful.* The Angora goat, whose fine glossy hair is a material of the, mohair, may also thrive as well here as in Sweden, where he was introduced by the patriotic Ahströmer.
Good orchards eminently unite the useful and pleasing; gratifying through the greater part of the year, the taste, scent, and fight. Horticulture was an early object in America, and has made considerable pros gress. At present our first care should be, to prevent distempers of the fruit-trees, of late become very alarming-Peach-trees, have till within, 20 or 30 years been very flourishing : fome English writers relate with amazement that the Americans fatten their hogs on this fruit, which is so costly in the North of Europe ; and it is true, that many common, farms abounded so far in a promiscous collection of better and worse. But at present the peach-trees are few, and generally, in a sickly condition, through the greater part of the country. Of this one principal cause is a fly, that deposits her eggs within the stem near the ground, which produce a great number of worms, who quickly consume all the lower bark. Most kinds of plum-trees are liable to decay, and the fruit is de. stroyed by a species of fly; but the ravages of this infect have been for a long time. Pear-trees have never indeed flourished well, but of late far less : some ascribe the blights of them to lightning, and hang, pieces of iron in the branches, to answer the purpose of electric rods. In some places lately cherry and apple-trees have been attacked by various distempers, which cause the fruit to rot, and the limbs to decay in rapid succession till the tree dies. This grangrene în fruit trees bears, a strong resemblance to the mortification of members in the human body; the corruption spreads quickly over a large limb, and amputation is the only preservative of the tree yet known. The loss of peach-orchards is a considerable disadvantage, as their early bloom is the principal beauty of spring; and the fruit is not only very pleasing both green and preserved, but also yields by distilling an agreeable and wholesome liquor, well known by the name of peach-brandy. The apple-orchards claim-a solicitous care merely as great ornaments of the country; much more as they supply a great article of diet and a salutary beverage equal to several species of wine. We want an American treatise on fruit-trees, which would show how far the best English authors are applicable to diverse parts of the United States; give a full account of all the best fruits here culti
vated, • Their mischievous agility in climbing is impaired by cutting the finews of the hindfect.