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ny, oppofing the will of nature's God. Agriculture has made a won
On our tillage the following remarks appear to me very interesting.The fucceffion of fevere frofts and deep thaws during winter in all the northern and middle states makes a variety of drains neceffary in most foils and fituations; yet an almoft general neglect of this deftroys a great part of the feed: a judicious treatife on the forms and courfes of fuch drains would be very useful. ufeful. A large portion of the arable lands in this and fome other states being hilly, is detrimentally washed by heavy rains in every season of the year: especially is the manure thereby totally lost. This would be much prevented by tranfverfe ploughing in a proper degree of horizontal inclination, which may be traced by computing the force and quantity of the water..
The Indian corn* is an effential article among American grains; and peculiarly suitable to an extensive country. It might be raised at fo moderate a price as to bear exportation to Europe; in the northern parts of which it would be very valuable as nourishment for domestic animals during the long winter. The mode of planting this grain by four or five feeds together in hills at the distance of several feet, appears less reafonable from the confideration, that one part of the ground is left vacant, while the other is over charged; that the contiguous stalks must impede each other; that their spindling height, and close position subjects them more to the high winds, which not unfrequently fweep down whole fields. I am informed by natives of Italy, that in that country the corn is planted fo as to cover the ground equally, with convenient intervals for weeding.
The culture of meadows has gained a confiderable perfection in the middle states; but ftill is capable of much improvement. We must dif
Maize or zea.
cover a mode of banking effectual against the floods that often ruin the best marih-meadows: in open fituations a close row of fome aquatic trees beyond the bank is indifpenfible for breaking the force of a stormy tide. We want graffes that will flourish in dry and fandy foils: fuch f. e. as 'were lately introduced in Spain, and are faid to have proved fo beneficial 'to that dry and warm country.
The heat of our fummers is unfavourable to grafs, where the ground, 'though fertile, has not a degree of moisture; it is therefore adviseable to try, whether barley, rye, or wheat, if cut young, would make good hay; and whether a fecond crop or the fucceeding pafture, may help to 'make a full compenfation for an eventual harveft? I remember to have 'heard this method much recommended by fome cultivators in a European country. The divifion of pasture grounds by enclosures is generally neglected. Clean feeding is an advantage of admitting cattle, horses, and sheep in rotation, that deserves attention.
The value of land, and clofe neighbourhood, makes good fences very neceflary in old fettlements. Worm-fencing and fimilar expedients of infant cultivation, fhould never be feen; they occafion loffes, vexation and contention. The regular frames of rails and boards would be much improved by hardening against heat and moisture: to render the lower part of the poft more durable, burning, encrufting with mortar, and soaking in salt water, are expedients partly used, and worthy of trial. Live hedges are in general preferable to any, but yet very rare; though the country presents many shrubs of promifing qualities.
The vast domains of the United States can vie with any country in the variety, utility, and beauty of trees and fhrubs. Our stately forests are a national treasure, deferving the folicitous care of the patriotic philofopher and politician. Hitherto they have been too much abandoned to the axes of rude and thoughtless wood-choppers. What person of fense and feeling can without indignation behold millions of young oaks and hickories destroyed, to make bonfires in open fmoaky houses, or trucked in the cities for foreign toys! fome parts of Europe were thus laid waste in former centuries; and the prefent generations must with great labour and expense repair the ravages of their forefathers. ny parts of this country a prefervation and encrease of the timber for fuel and other domestic uses renders these queries important.-What trees are of the quickest growth? at what age do they encrease most? what is the proper distance between them? what is the best mode of pruning, for b
promoting the growth, and taking off all fuperfluous branches? what kinds are fuitable to different foils? what fpecies thrive beft together? a judicious lopping of the branches, thinning close the clumps of trees, and clearing the ground of underwood, will make many woodlands good pastures, and form them into beautiful parks... This management would also improve the quality of timber by procuring the benefit of fun and air: the want of this may be regarded as one principal caufe of the fpunginefs of our timber, which defect fo inimical to durability, ftrength, and preservation of a given form, is further encreased by a too common ignorance or neglect of the proper feafon for felling the materials of building, furniture, ftaves and various utenfils. Some valuable trees and fhrubs are yet obfcurely known: among these the fo called coffee-tree * in the western country, that bears a hard nut, the kernel of which is generally used by the inhabitants as a substitute for coffee; the native plumb trees on the Miffiflippi, faid to be far superior to those in the middle states; the newly discovered and much extolled grape of Scioto.t Many of those which have long been familiar to us, ftill poffefs useful qualities little explored. Oil might be extracted from acorns, and efpecially from the large and greafy fpecies of the chefnut-oak; as lately, though but in few places, is done from the various kinds of walnuts. Spirits may be diftilled from the berries of the red cedar, which fo much reffemble those of the European Juniper.. Wine far better, than what is generally done, can be made from the late grapes, as I know by my own > experiments. From all kinds of grapes, the Perfimon fruit, the berries of the four-gum, ‡ and white-thorn, the crab-apple, the wildpears, plumbs, and cherries, with fimilar fruits, fpirituous liquor, and vinegar may be obtained. This white-thorn will, if it can be kept clofe and low, make an impenetrable and beautiful hedge, by its long sharp and folid fpears, and by its clustering bloffoms and large red berries.. The new experiment of grafting foreign kinds on our native grape-wines, faid to be very promifing, may prove a good preservative against the rigour of winter. In all probability many species of leaves would make good fodder for cattle, if gathered in the proper feason, and well cured: this expedient practifed in the north of Europe is of great importance to one half of the American states, which have according to situation no pasture
A branch of the Ohio.
Afpin leaves f. e. are a pleasing and falutary food for horses,
for five a feven months. Finally we may fincerely with that the owners of venerable woodlands might regard them as principal ornaments of their country; and while they clear a part for the purposes of agriculture, leave those hills crowned with towering pines, and stately oaks; fuffering like wife the groves of tulip-trees and magnolias to wave among yellow harvests and blooming meadows. In fome of the old countries many gentlemen would purchase such rural charms at any expenfe, but must wait till the evening of life for the fhade of their plantations; is it not then deplorable, that so many American farmers daily destroy what their offspring of better taste will deeply regret! this evil might in a great measure be leffened by a treatise on ornamental planting adapted to the prefent circumstances of this country.
Half a century ago, philofophers thought it beneath them to investigate the œconomy of domestic animals. By this ridiculous pride European countries have fuffered much. The Swedish naturalifts were rouf ed near thirty years ago, to a ferious attention, by a peftilence among horfes and horned cattle, which destroyed many thousands in fome provinces. In America, this important science has been much neglected. Not to enlarge upon a subject which especially concerns agricultural focieties, I fhall only mention two or three particulars-This country is not unfavourable to horfes; yet thofe of good quality are not very common, because the natural history of these noble animals is but little cultivated. They are often disabled by want of proper care; and perish by various diforders; efpecially by fwelling in the throat, cholic, and the botts.* Sheep thrive well in fome parts, but in others I have feen them die by dozens, without the owners knowing or inquiring into the cause.
Horned cattle fuffer much when expofed to the winter's cold, which destroys their hoofs even under the 39 degree. Both they and horfes are affected by excess of heat in summer: which not feldom causes a fever, difcernible by their want of appetite, dullness, and a yellow tinge of the mouth and eyes. The best European treatises on domeftic animals will more or less apply to diverse parts of this country: a book written on fheep, in Swedish, by Haftfer, has great merit, and is applicable to the colder ftates.
Goats would be very valuable in the rocky woodlands of America, as they are in those of Europe. They are very hardy: their maintenance is cheap, as they browfe fummer and winter on moft kinds of trees and b 2
* A kind of worms that devours their maw.
fhrubs they yield a great quantity of rich milk and their fkins are very useful.* The Angora goat, whose fine gloffy hair is a material of the, mohair, may alfo thrive as well here as in Sweden, where he was introduced by the patriotic Ahftrömer.
Good orchards eminently unite the ufeful and pleafing; gratifying through the greater part of the year, the tafte, fcent, and fight. Horticulture was an early object in America, and has made confiderable pro-, grefs. At present our first care fhould be, to prevent diftempers of the, fruit-trees, of late become very alarming-Peach-trees, have till within, 20 or 30 years been very flourishing: fome English writers relate with, amazement that the Americans fatten their hogs on this fruit, which is fo coftly in the North of Europe; and it is true, that many common farms abounded fo far in a promiscous collection of better and worse. But at present the peach-trees are few, and generally in a fickly condition, through the greater part of the country. Of this one principal cause is a fly, that depofits her eggs within the stem near the ground, which produce a great number of worms, who quickly confume all the lower bark. Moft kinds of plum-trees are liable to decay, and the fruit is de-, ftroyed by a species of fly; but the ravages of this infect have beenfor a long time. Pear-trees have never indeed flourished well, but of late far lefs: fome afcribe the blights of them to lightning, and hang pieces of iron in the branches, to answer the purpofe of electric rods. In fome places lately cherry and apple-trees have been attacked by various distempers, which cause the fruit to rot, and the limbs to decay in rapid fucceffion till the tree dies. This grangrene in fruit trees bears. a ftrong resemblance to the mortification of members in the human body; the corruption spreads quickly over a large limb, and amputation is the only prefervative of the tree yet known. The lofs of peach-orchards is a confiderable disadvantage, as their early bloom is the principal beauty of fpring; and the fruit is not only very pleafing both green and preserved, but also yields by distilling an agreeable and wholesome liquor, well known by the name of peach-brandy. The apple-orchards claim a folicitous care merely as great ornaments of the country; much more as they supply a great article of diet and a falutary beverage equal to several species of wine. We want an American treatise on fruit-trees, which would fhow how far the best English authors are applicable to diverfe parts of the United States; give a full account of all the beft fruits here culti
vated, • Their mischievous agility in climbing is impaired by cutting the finews of the hindfeet.