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quam nos pastores consuevimus deducere

agnos tenellos.

cùm tantus sit tumultus Usque adeò turbatur agris. En ipse capellas
toto rure. Ecce ego me. Protenùs æger ago : hanc etiam vix, Tityre, duco :
las, et hanc, o Tityre, dif. Hic inter densas corylos modò namque gemellos,
ficile traho: modò emim Spem gregis, ah! silice in nudâ connixa reliquit.
enixa geminos fætus, qui
erant spes gregis, proh

Sæpe malum hoc nobis, si mens non læva fuisset dolor : deseruit eos rigido De cælo tactas memini prædicere quercus': in saxo, inter spissas co- Sæpe sinistra cavâ prædixit ab ilice cornix. Tylos. Memini quercus Sed tamen, ille Deus qui sit, da, Tityre, nobis. prænunciasse nobis hanc tit. Urbem, quam dicunt Romam, Melibee, putavi 20 calamitatem, nisi animus Stultus ego huic nostræ similem, quò sæpe solemus imprudens fuisset ; sæpe Pastores ovium teneros depellere fætus. ex ilice potri. Attamen Sic canibus catulos similes, sic matribus hædos dic nobis, Tityre, quinam Nôram : sic parvis componere magna solebam. sit ille Deus.-Tit. Ego Verùm hæc tantùm alias inter caput extulit urbes, 25 demens, o Melibãe, existimavi urbem, quæ vo

Quantum lenta solent inter viburna cupressi. catur Roma, similem es- MEL. Et quæ tanta fuit Romam tibi causa videndi ? se nostræ Mantuana, ad

Tit. Libertas : quæ sera, tamen respexit inertem;

Candidior postquam tondenti barba cadebat:
Quemad- Respexit tamen, et longo pòst tempore venit,

30 modum sciebam catulos Postquam nos Amaryllis habet, Galatea reliquit. ' lis esse similes : quemad- Namque (fatebor enim) dum me Galatea tenebat, modum solebam compa. Nec spes libertatis erat, nec cura peculî: rare magna parvis. Sed

Quamvis multa meis exiret victima septis, urbs illa tantùm eminet inter cæteras, quantùm Pinguis et ingratæ premeretur caseus urbi,

35 cupressi solent eminere Non unquam gravis ære domum mihi dextra redibat. inter viburna flexilia.

MEL. Mirabar, quid mæsta Deos, Amarylli, vocares, Mel. Et quæ tanta necessitas te coëgit Roinam Cui pendere suâ patereris in arbore poma. peure ?--Tit. Libertas : Tityrus hinc aberat. Ipsæ te, Tityre, pinus, que licèt tarda, tamen Ipsi te fontes, ipsa hæc arbusta vocabant.

40 aspexit me desidem, cùm janu cana barba decideret tit. Quid fascerem ? neq; servitio me exire licebat, secanti: tamen aspexit, Nec tam præsentes alibi cognoscere divos. et venit post multos an. Hic illumn vidi juvenem, Melibee, quotannis secutus sarn Amaryllida, Bis senos cui nostra dies altaria fumant. et reliqui Galateam. Sci--Hic mihi responsum primus dedit ille petenti : licet, quamdiu amavi Ga Pascite ut antè, boves, pueri : submittite tauros. nee speravi libertatem, MEL. Fortunate senex ! ergo tua rura manebunt : nec curavi patrimoni- Et tibi magna satis : quamvis lapis omnia nudus, um: licèt educerem ex Limosoque palus obducat pascua junco: ovilibus rucis multas victimas, et coagularem optimos caseos ad usum ingratæ urbis ; nunquam referebam domum manus plenas pe. caniâ.--Mcl. Mirabar cur tristis invocares Deos, 0 Amarylli, cui servares poua pendentia suis queque arboribus. Tityrus hinc aberat : ipsæ pinus, ipsi fontes, kæ ipse arbores te repetebaut.-Tit. Quid fecissem?? ncc poteram aliter abire è servitute: nee Deos experiri tam propitios in alio loco, quàm Rome. juvenem illum, 0 Melibee, propter quem aræ nostra fumant singulis annis per duodecim dies. prior ita respondit roganti mihi : Pueri, pascite boves, ut priùs : et subligate tauros jugo.- Mel. O felix senex! itaq; agri tui relinquentur tibi, iiq; tibi satis ampli: licet nuda saxa regant exteros undique, et palus operiat pascua cænoso junco :

45

Illic vidi

Illic ipse

NOTES. 19. Iste is the true reading ; hic, iste, avd 28. Libertas. Not that Virgil or his faille, being thus distinguished: Hic Deus, ther were really slaves; but be speaks of is this god of mine, or whom I mentioned; the oppressions which he sustained at home iste Deus, is that god of yours ; and ille Deus, in his own country as a kind of slavery. that god of his, of theirs, or of any third per- 33. Peculi. Peculium is the private stock

of a slave; in which sense it is properly ap23. Sic. He thought it only different in plied to Tityrus, who personates the chamagnitude, not in kind: but, when he came racter of a slave, to see Rome, he not only found it distin- 35. Ingrate urbi. Unhappy city. guished in degree, but even in species : it 36. Non unquam, &c. Literally, My right was a quite other sort of city, just as the hand never returned home loaded with money cypress differs in species from a shrub. 46. Pueri. Puer has three significations

son.

Non insueta graves tentabunt pabula fætas,

50 insolita pabula non vitia.

bunt gravidas pecudes, Nec mala vicini pecoris contagia lædent.

neque noxia contagics Fortunate senex ! hic inter flumina nota,

vicini greges inficiet eas, Et fontes sacros, frigus captabis opacum.

O felix senex! hic pro

pe amnes cognitos, et Hinc tibi, quæ semper vicino ab limite sepes

fontes, dicatos Nymphis Hyblæis apibus florem depasta salicti,

55 frueris umbra frigida. Sæpe levi somnum suadebit inire susurro.

Ex aliâ parte sepes limi

tis propinqui, in quá flos Hinc altâ sub rupe canet frondator ad auras.

salicum carpitur semper Nec tamen intereà raucæ, tua cura, palumbes,

à Siculis apib:is, s&pe Nec gemere aëriâ cessabit turtur ab ulmo.

tenui murmure apum te TIT. Antè leves ergo pascentur in æthere cervi,

invitabit, ut somno in60

dulgeas. Ex alia parte Et freta destituent nudos in litore pisces :

putator frondium excel. Antè, pererratis amborum finibus, exul

so in colle cantabit ad Aut Ararim Parthus bibet aut Germania Tigrim,

auras. Neque tamen in

terim rauce palumbes, Quàm nostro illius labatur pectore vultus.

quæ sunt tuæ deliciæ, neMEL. At nos hinc alii sitientes ibimus Afros,

65 que turtur desinet que

ri ex ilmo sublimi.-Tit. Pars Scythiam, et rapidum Cretæ veniemus Oaxem,

Prius igitur agiles cervi Et penitus toto divisos orbe Britannos.

pascent in aëre, et maria En unquam patrios longo pòst tempore fines,

deserent in litore pisces

defectos aquâ : Priùs exPauperis et tugurî congestum cespite culmen,

torris Parthia potabit Post aliquot mea regna videns mirabor aristas? 70 Arari.m, aut Germania Impius hæc tam culta novalia miles habebit?

Tigrim, regionibus mu.

tud permutatis, quam Barbarus has segetes ? En quò discordia cives

forma illius juvenis t'xPerduxit miseros ! en queis consevimus agros !

cidat mihi ex animo, Insere nunc, Melibee, pyros, pone ordine vites :

Mel. Nos verò binc pulsi Ite meæ, felix quondam pecus, ite capellæ.

75 partim ibimus in Afri

cam aridam, partim pe Non ego vos posthac, viridi projectus in antro,

temus Scythiam, aut ee. Dumosâ pendere procul de rupe videbo :

lerem Oaxem Cretæ, aut

Britannos omnino separatos à cæteris populis. Nunquamne post diuturnum tempus, post aliquot annos, revisam eum admiratione patriam regionem, et tectum easte pauperis extructum è glebå, quæ tota erat mea possessio ? Seeleratus miles possidebit hæc arva tam culta ? peregrinus has messes ? Ecce quù calamitatis dissensio adegit cives infortunatos ; ecce propter quos seminavimus arva. Nune, û Melibcee, insere pyros, digere vineas in ordinem. Ite, ite, meæ capellæ, grex olim fortunate. Non ego deinde stratus viridi in speluncá aspiciam vox procul spinosa è rape pendere:

NOTES. 1. A slave. 2. A boy, in opposition to a girl. 57. Ad auras. To the breezes: or per3. Puerilis ætas.

haps it means aloud, so as to pierce the 50. Graves fætás, i. e. pregnantes : Nam skies, as the phrase is used elsewhere. feta sine addito, et de gravida, et de puerpera 63. Parthus is not here to be taken for 2 dicitur. In the first sense it occurs, Æn, particular native of Parthia, but for the ParVIII. 640.

thian nation in general ; as Germania in the Fecerat et viridi fetam Mavortis in antro other part of the verse signifies the Germans Procubuisse lupam.

in a body. The meaning therefore is, That 52. Inter Aumina. The Mincio and the Po. these two nations shall sooner erchange coun

53. Frigu: opacum. Literally, the shady tries with one another, than, &c. Had the coolness.

critics attended to this, it might have saved 54. Ab vicino limite. The same as in, &c. them a great deal of needless trouble.

55. Florem depasta salicti. A Grecism, the 70. Aliquot aristas, Some years, accord. same as habens forem salicti depastum. ing to some, as Claudian says, decimas emen.

55. Hyblæis apibus, i. e. bees such as sus aristas. But this agrees not with longo those of Hybla, a mountain in Sicily, pro- post tempore; the one implying a long and ductive of the finest honey.

the other a short duration; or at best it 57. Frondator. Servius gives it three sig- would be an idle repetition of the same idea. nifications : 1. The woodman in general: Ž. Therefore by aristas it seems better to unThe vine-dresser, who clears away the vine- derstand thin fields of corn, where are but a leaves when they are too thick, and lays the few ears to be seen ; which also suits best grapes more open to the sun : 3. Any bird with mea regna, which in the natural order that sings among the boughs; whence some of construction must refer to aliqua uristas, render it the nightingale.

not to culmen pauperis tuguri.

79

cantilenam nullam mo-Carmina nulla canam : non, me pascente, capellæ dulabor: non tondebitis, Florentem cytisum et salices carpetis amaras. rentem et salices amaras, TIT. Hìc tamen hanc mecum poteris requiescere noctem me custode. --Tit. Ta-Fronde super viridi. Sunt nobis mitia poma, men poteris hâc nocte quiescere hic mecum

Castaneæ molles, et pressi copia lactis. super foliis virentibus. Et jam summa procul villarum culmina fumant, Habemus matura poma, Majoresque cadunt altis de montibus umbræ. sum coacti lactis. Et jam summa pagorum tecta procul fumant, et umbræ grandiores porriguntur ex altis

montibus.

NOTE. 82. Castaneæ molles. Molles may either 53. the one being smooth in the husk, the signify ripe, or such chestnuts as were called other rough and jagged. soft, in opposition to the hirsutx, Ecl. VII.

ECLOGA II.

ALEXIS.

5

INTERPRETATIO. FORMOSUM pastor Corydon ardebat Alexim,

Pastor Corydon ama- Delicias domini : nec, quid speraret, habebat. qui erat voluptas domi- Tantum inter densas, umbrosa cacumina, fagos ni : nec erat ipsi spes ul. Assiduè veniebat : ibi hæc incondita solus la : solummodo veniebat Montibus et sylvis studio jactabat inani. frequenter ad spissas fa

O crudelis Alexi, nihil mea carmina curas : opaeum est: illic solus Nil nostri miserere : mori me denique coges, funde bat inutiliter mon- Nunc etiam pecudes umbras et frigora captant: tibus et nemoribus hæc verba incomposita.

Nunc virides etiam occultant spineta lacertos : dare Alexi! nullo modo curas meos cantus: nullo modo miserescis mei : denique coges me mori. Nunc ipsa pecora fruuntur umbra et frigore : nunc lacerti ipsi virides latent in vepribus :

gos, quarum cacunen

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NOTES. By Corydon here some would have us to with a suitable present of nuts and apples : understand Virgil bimself, and by Alexis a but, when he finds that nothing will prevail, young slave of Mæcenas, for whom Virgil he resolves to quit his troublesome amour, had conceived a violent affection, and soli- and betake himself again to his former bucited his patron to make him a present of the siness. boy ; to which Martial is thought to allude There is certainly something more inin the verses above quoted, EcI.I. Be that tended in this pastoral than a description of as it will, Corydon is here represented mak- friendship or Platonic love ; the sentiments, ing love to this beautiful youth. His way though chaste, are too warm and passionate of courtship is wholly pastoral : he com. for a mere Platonic lover. But there is no plains of the boy's coyness ; recommends reason to charge Virgil on that account with himself for his beauty and skill in piping; the unnatural love of boys; a poet may show invites the youth into the country, where his talent in describing a passion which he he promises him the diversions of the place, by no means approves.

0

gra.

Thestylis et rapido fessis messoribus æstu

D) et Thestylis conterit her.

bas odoriferas, allium et Allia serpyllumque herbas contundit olentes.

serpylam, messoribus faAt mecum raucis, tua dum vestigia lustro,

tigatis ab gravem æstum. Sole sub ardenti resonant arbusta cicadis.

Interim, dum sequor tua

restigia, mecum ad sNonne fuit satius tristes Amaryllidis iras,

em ferventem rauca ceAtq; superba pati fastidia ? nonne Menalcan;

15 adæ strepitant per loca Quamvis ille niger, quamvis tu candidus esses.

onsita arboribus.

Nonne fuisset melius O formose puer, nimiùm ne crede colori :

Hlerare graves iras et Alba ligustra cadunt, vaccinia nigra leguntur.

inperiosa fastidja AmaDespectus tibi sum, nec qui sim quæris, Alexi:

rilidis ? Nonne fuisset

mlius tolerare Menal

20 Quàm dives pecoris, nivei quam lactis abundans.

ca ? licèt ille fuscus sit, Mille meæ Siculis errant in montibus agnæ :

licit tu albus sis. Lac mihi non æstate novum, non frigore defit.

forsiose puer, ne nimis

conidas colori. LigusCanto, quæ solitus, si quando armenta vocabat

tra acent humi, quamAmphion Dircæus in Actæo Aracyntho.

sis candida ; vaccinia Nec sum adeò informis : nuper me in litore vidi, 25 colliguntur, quamvis ni

Me contemnis, o Cùm placidum ventis staret mare : non ego Daphnim,

Alexi, nec consideras Judice te, metuam, si nunquam fallat imago.

quis ego sim, quàm mul. O tantùm libeat mecum tibi sordida rura,

tas possideam oves, quàm

multum habeam laetis Atque humiles habitare casas, et figere cervos,

candiai. Mille oves mex Hædorumq; gregem viridi compellere hibisco! 30 vagantur in montibus Mecum unâ in sylvis imitabere Pana canendo.

Siciliæ : lac novum non

deest mibi per æstatem, Pan primus calamos cerâ conjungere plures

nec per hyemem. Cane Instituit; Pan curat oves, oviumque magistros.

ea quæ Amphion TheNec te pæniteat calamo trivisse labellum.

banus solebat canere in

Aracyntho maritimo. Hæc eadem ut sciret, quid non faciebat Amyntas? 35 Nec sum

tam deformis : Est mihi disparibus septem compacta cicutis

nuper vidi me è litore, Fistula, Damætas dono mihi quam dedit olim :

cùm mare tranquillum Et dixit moriens : Te nunc habet ista secundum.

Ego non timerem DapbDixit Damætas; invidit stultus Amyntas.

nim, te ipso arbitro: ni. Prætereà duo, nec tutâ mihi valle reperti,

40 si aliquando forma mo Capreoli, sparsis etiam nunc pellibus albo,

decipiat. Utinam velis

tantummodo mecum in. Bina die siccant ovis ubera : quos tibi servo.

colere agros tibi viles, do mosque parvas : et transfodere cervos, et ducere gregem heedorum ad hibiscum virentem. In sylvis simul mecum imitaberis Pana cantando. Pan primus in morem induxit pectere cerá multas arundines : Pan protegit oves et pastores ovium. Nec pigeat te labra atterere fistula. Quid non faciebat Amyntas, ut disceret hæc eadem à me? Habeo fistular conflatam e septem cicutis inæqualibus, quam Damætas quondam dona vit mihi : et dixit moriens : Tu nunc istam secundus possides. Dameras hoc dixit, Amyntas stolidus invidit. Insuper duo capreoli inventi me in valle, non sine periculo : quorum pelles sunt adhuc distinctæ maculis candidis, quotidie exhauriunt gemina ovis ubera : hos servo tibi,

non moveretur vento.

NOTES. 18. Vaccinia. Some will have this to be was the fountain Dirce: it is called Actæo, bilberries; Servius makes it the violet; but from Acta or Acte, the country about Atfrom that Virgil himself plainly distinguish- tica, Ovid. Met. lib. II. 720. Sic super Aces it, Ecl. X. 39.

teas agilis Cyllenius arces inclinat cursus. Et nigre viole sunt, et vaccinia nigra. 28. Tibi sordida rura. Servius, and all the Salmasius and others explain it of the hya. commentators after him, join tibi with sordicinth, chiefly because vaccinium answers to da, the country which gives you such disvarivbos in that line of Theocritus, which gust. But that construction seems not so naVirgil here not only imitates, but almost li- tural ; perhaps it would be better to join terally translates :

tibi with libeat. As for sordida, it is a proper Και το ιον μελαν εντι και άγραπτα υακινθος. . epithet for cottages and villages, which are 24. Amphion. The famous king of Thebes mean and poorly furnished. Or he speaks who built the walls of that city, the stones in the character of a lover, who thinks nowhereof he is said to have made to dance thing good enough for his beloved object. into their places by the music of his lyre. 30. Hibisco. A slender twig or rush ; as He is called Dircæus, either from Dirce his appears from Ecl. X. 71. stepmother, whom he put to death for the Dum sedet, et gracili fiscellam texet hibisco. injuries she had done to his mother Antiope; 36. Cicutis. Hemlock, here used for any or from a fountain in Bæotia of that name. hollow reeds.

24. Aracyntho. Aracynthus was a town on 38. Te nunc, &c. Literally, now it has you the confines of Attica and Baotia, where its second master,

55

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Jamdudum Thestylis co. ampridem à me illos abducere Thestylis orat : natur precibus obtineret faciet : quoniam sordent tibi munera nostra. siquidem dona mea tibHuc ades, ô formose puer. Tibi lilia plenis

45 vilescunt. Huc vem, Ecce ferunt Nymphæ calathis : tibi candida Naïs formose puer. En Ny Pallentes violas et summa papavera carpens, phæ offerunt sibi lili plenis canistris: all Narcissum et florem jungit benè olentis anethi : Na is tibi colligens viols Tum casiâ, atque aliis intexens suavibus herbis, pallidas et capita par Mollia luteolâ pingit vaccinia calthâ.

50 et florem anethi odorie. Ipse ego cana legam tenerâ lanugine mala, ri: deinde miscens con Castaneasque nuces, mea quas Amaryllis amabat. casiâ et aliis herbis at. Addam cerea pruna : et honos erit huic quoq; pomo : cinia calthis croceis. igo Et vos, ô lauri, carpam, et te, proxima myrte; verò colligam ponu al- Sic positæ quoniam suaves miscetis odores. bentia molli lanugite, et Rusticus es, Corydon ; nec munera curat Alexis ; mea Amaryllis diligebat Nec si muneribus certes, concedat lolas. Adjungam pruna flava, Eheu, quid volui misero mihi ? floribus Austrum et laus erat quoque huic Perditus, et liquidis immisi fontibus apros. pam, o lauri ; et te, myr. Quem fugis, ah, demens! habitârunt dii quoq; sylvas, 60 te, lauris vieina : quia Dardaniusq; Paris. Pallas, quas condidit arces, ita junete emittitis gra- Ipsa colat : nobis placeant ante omnia sylvæ. 8 Corydon, et Alexis non Torva leæna lupum sequitur: lupus ipse capellam : movetur tuis donis : et Florentem cytisum sequitur lasciva capella : si contendas donis, Iulas Te Corydon, 6 Alexi : trahit sua quemq; voluptas. ser, quid feci? immisi Aspice, aratra jugo referunt suspensa juvenci, Austruna floribus, er Et sol crescentes decedens duplicat umbras. apros puris fontibus, im. Me tamen urit amor : quis enim modus adsit amori? quem fugis? Dii ipsi Ah, Corydon, Corydon, quæ te dementia cepit ! incoluerunt nemora, et Semiputata tibi frondosâ vitis in ulmo est.

70 Paris Trojanus. Pallas Quin tu aliquid saltem potiùs, quorum indiget usus, incolnt ipsa urbes quas extruxit : sylvie autem

Viminibus molliq; paras detexere junco ? placeant nobis præ cæ-Invenies alium, si te hic fastidit, Alexim. teris rebus. æna sectatur lupum, lupus ipse capellam, petulans capella sectatur cytisum : te Corydon sectadur, unusquisque rapitur suå voluptate. Vide, en juvenci referunt domum aratra sublevata jugo: et sol occidens auget crescentes umbrus: me tamen amor inflammat : nam quis potest esse finis in adore? Ab Corydon, Corydon, quænam insania te occupavit! Habes in ulmo frondoså vitem medià ex parte recisam : cur non potiùs conaris saltem texere vimine, aut junco flexili, aliquid carum rerum, quarum eget vita rustica ? Reperies alium Alexim, si hic te despicit.

65

Ferox le

Alexi:

NOTES. 51. Mala. We would translate it quinces, Pubentesque rosæ primos moriuntur ad with Servius, and all the commentators ; austros. whereof the white are the best and most 61. Dardaniusque Paris. Paris was exfragrant. See Pliny, XXI. 6. But the de- posed by bis father in a wood, in order to scription here given seems rather to suit elude the oracle, which foretold that he was the peach, as Mr. Dryden renders it. to be the destruction of Troy.

53. Cerea, Of a beautiful colour as wax. 61. Pallas condidit. Meaning that she first See La Cerda.

invented and taught persons to build stately 57. Iolas. Those who think Corydon per- structures. sonates Virgil, and Alexis the slave of Me- 66. Aratra jugo suspensa. These words cenas whom he loved, by Iolus here of allude to the manner of bringing home the course understand Maecenas.

plough, when the labour of the day is over. 58. Floribus Austrem immisi. A prover. It is then drawn backward : thus the share, bial expression, applicable to those who not entering the ground, glides easily along, wish for things that prove destructive to and may be said to be only just hung upon them; the south wind by its hot sultry qua- the yoke. lity being noxious to flowers. Hence Papin. lib. II. Sylv.

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